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[PSYCH 111] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 50 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 111
Professor
Leah James
Study Guide
Midterm

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U of M
PSYCH 111
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Psychology 111 Fall 2016 Exam 1 Review Sheet and Study Guide
For studies: what is the main finding, point of the study, and what is important= what theory does it support
Introduction, Methods, History
Schools of thought
Empiricism: John Locke, infants as a blank slate/tabula rosa, all knowledge comes from sensory
experience, do not believe in a soul divorced from the body
Structuralism: William Wundt, introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind
o Introspection: structuralism with Wundt… revealing the structure of the mind through
inner thoughts
Functionalism: William James, explored how mental and behavioral processes enable organism
to adapt, survive, and flourish
Behaviorism: B. F. Skinner and John Watson, scientific study of behavior, saw psychology as an
objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes, no distinction
between soul and body, or animal and human behavior
Cognitive revolution: use behavior to reveal the mind
Major historical figures
Descartes: dualism (body and soul), distinction between body and soul
Locke: empiricism, EXPERIENCE drives behavior
Freud: psychoanalysis, associated with the unconscious mind, dreams, theory of personality, our
emotional responses, unconscious thought processes
Watson: behaviorism, “causes” of behavior in the environment, human and animal behavior are
compatible
Skinner: scientific study of behavior
Types of research designs
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Case studies: observes and studies 1 person, a descriptive technique in which one individual or
group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Naturalistic observation: a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally
occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Surveys: a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a
particular group usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
Correlational studies: to detect natural occurring relationships, to assess how well one variable
predicts another
Experiments: a research method in which an investigator MANIPULATES one or more factors
to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
*** CAN EXPLAIN CAUSATION!!
Experimental terminology
Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and
predicts behaviors or events
Hypothesis: a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Random assignment (of subjects): assigning participants to experimental and control groups by
chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups
Random sample: a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal
chance of inclusion
Independent variable: in an experiment, the factor that is MANIPULATED; the variable whose
effect is being studied
Dependent variable: in an experiment, the outcome that is measured; the variable that may
change when the independent variable is manipulated
Confounding variable: in an experiment, a factor other than the independent variable that might
produce an effect
Experimental group: in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version
of the independent variable
Control group: in an experiment, the group NOT exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the
experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
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