Chapter 15: DNA and the Gene: Synthesis and Repair [MIDTERM 2 MATERIAL]

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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Mark Huyler

DNA and the Gene: Synthesis and Repair The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance "Chromosomes contain genes" Watson and Crick "DNA directionality and polarity" 3', 5' Ends Anti-Parallel Double Helix Complimentary Base Pairing The Hershey - Chase Experiment "DNA or Protein?" Escherichia Coli Bacteria (E. Coli) T2 Virus Capsid "Exterior Protein Coat" 1) Proteins contain Sulfur but not Phosphorous 2) DNA contain Phosphorous but not Sulfur 35P 32P Results: Radioactive 35S was outside the cell in the capsid while radioactive 32 P was inside the host cell. The Meselson-Stahl Experiment "Semiconservative: Each newly made DNA comprises of one old and new strand" Semiconservative "splitting" Conservative "intact" Dispersive "cutting" Escherichia Coli Bacterium 15N - Heavier (template) 14N - Normal Isotope, lighter (replicated) Density-Gradient centrifugation "separate molecules based on density" 15N band lower in centrifuge DNA Synthesis - THE REPLISOME "5-3 Direction" Replication Bubble Multiple Origins (Eukaryotes) Single Origin (Prokaryotes) Bidirectional DNA Helicase "break hydrogen bonds" Replication Fork Single Strand Binding Proteins SSBP "prevent coiling" Topoisomerase "cuts DNA, allows it to unwinds, then rejoins it" Leading Strand "After an RNA primer is in place, DNA polymerase moves along adding deoxyriboneucleotides to the 3' end of that strand. The enzymes moves into the replication fork, which unzips ahead of it" Deoxyribonucleoside Triphophates (dNTP) High Potential Energy Exergonic DNA Polymerase
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