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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Hospitality & Tourism Managmnt
HT-MGT 150
Linda Kinney

SANITATION: Terms: • Cross Contamination - Occurs when hazardous microorganisms are transferred to a food from another food or surface • Danger Zone - 41-135 degrees at this temperature bacteria thrives and may cause food bourne illness • Time Temperature Abuse - When food has been in danger zone for more than 4 hours • Potentially Hazardous Foods - High protein, cooked or partially cooked, veggies, tofo, pasta, raw seed sprouts, sliced melon, tomatoes, garlic and oil mixtures • Ready To Eat Foods - Foods that do not require more/any cooking time (lettuce, deli meats, bakes goods) • Food Bourne Illnesses- diseases transmitted to people from food Study Questions: 1. Describe steps to prevent food-borne illness in the following areas: a. Personal hygiene: Constantly wash hands b. Food handling: use gloves, wash hands c. Storage: always store meats on bottom shelves of fridge and if open package, put them in a plastic container and then in fridge. Never put produce under meats. d. Cleaning procedures: Wash all produce 2. What should the prob thermometer read when checking the internal temperature of beef roast, ground beef, fish and chicken before removing it from the oven. Eggs Cooked to Order 140 for Pre-Cooked Ham 145 for Fin Fish, Cuts of Beef, Pork, Veal & Lamb 160 for Fresh Ham, Ground Beef, Pork, Veal, Lamb 165 for Poultry 3. Give examples of potentially hazardous foods. Meats, Poultry, Seafood, Tofu, and most dairy products. 4. Name three ways to prevent cross-contamination. 1. Cleaning the prep area before and after any prepping of food is done. 2. Proper food storage. 3. Washing hands and wearing gloves. 5. Is washing hands once immediately prior to preparing food sufficient? When else should one wash hands. Yes it is efficient but you should also wash your hands after your done prepping foods and any time you touch something such as your face and hair. 6. What is the danger zone? Why do foodservice professionals need to be aware of it? The danger zone is the temperature that food can potentially turn hazardous if left in too long. Foodservice professionals need to be aware of this because it is cumulative time and if it is left in the danger zone for more than four hours, then it is no longer safe to serve to the public and must be thrown out. MEASUREMENTS: One Gallon Is… • 128 Fluid Ounces • 16 Cups • 4 Quarts One Quart Is… • 4 Cups One Pint Is… • 16 Fluid Ounces • 2 Cups One Cup Is… • 8 Fluid Ounces • 16 Tablespoons One Tablespoon Is… • ½ Fluid Ounce • 3 Teaspoons One Pound Is… • 16 Ounces One Fluid Ounce Is… • 2 Tablespoons Knives: • Boning - Blade is thinner than that of chef’s knife, about 6 inches long, and rigid. Separating raw meat from bone • Chefs – Blade 8-12 inches long. All-purpose knife: a variety of chopping, mincing, and slicing • Cleaver - Heavy enough to cut through bones; rectangular blade; varies in size according to its intended use. Chopping • Filet - Similar in shape and size to a boning knife, but thinner and with a more flexible blade. Fileting fish • Santoku – Somewhat similar to a chef’s knife. Better for up-down motion • Utility - Smaller, lighter chef’s knife with a blade 5–8 inches long. Various cutting chores • Paring – Blade 2-4 inches long. Paring and trimming vegetables and fruits • Serrated Knife – Can be pointed or round tipped. Used to slice soft foods (i.e. fruits and veggies) without destroying the food • Channel – Small peeler with a metal tooth on one end. Used to make long, thin garnishes such as citrus twists, or anything visually and elegantly appealing • Mandoline – Used to cut and slice juliennes; two separate pieces that slide together to create a perfect and even slice for vegetables like carrots • Microplane Grater – Grating various food items such as cheese or nutmeg and can also be used as a zester for citrus fruit • Grater – Used to grate food like cheese. Usually has four surfaces • Zester - Handle and curved metal end, the top of which is perforated with a row of round holes with sharpened rims. Obtaining zest from lemons or citrus fruit Hand Tools: • Offset Spatula - Blade is chisel edged, between 9 and 10 inches long and 3–4 inches wide, set in a short handle. Turning or lifting foods on grills, broilers, and griddles • Rubber Spatula – Used to remove materials from mixing bowls • Bakers Spatula (Channels Knife) - Flexible round-tipped tool; may be flat or offset. Blade is between 4 and 5 inches long and ¼–¾ inch wide.In the kitchen and bakeshop, spreading fillings and glazes; placing garnishes; portioning; and a variety of other functions • Kitchen Spoons – Used for mixing, portioning, etc. • Rolling Pin – Made from hard, tight-grained woods to prevent fats from penetrating the pin that is found in many rolled doughs • Skimmer (Spider) – Used to remove any item that has floated to the top of the mix that is unwanted. Mostly butter or also used to poach eggs • Tongs – Used to move objects out of areas in heat • Chinois – Same as a conical sieve; the openings can vary from either very large to very small. Used to strain or puree food • Ladle – Used to remove thick liquids and portion them • Sauce Wisk - Sauce whisks are narrower and frequently have thicker wires. Beating, blending, whipping • Balloon Wisk - Balloon whisks are sphere shaped and have thin wires to incorporate air when making foams. Beating, blending, whipping • Parisienne Scoop - May have one scoop or two of different sizes, between ¼ and ¾ inch in diameter. Scooping out balls or ovals from vegetables and fruits • Pastry Brush - Traditional pastry brushes are made with natural bristles or a plastic or nylon fiber similar to a paint brush, while modern kitchen brushes may have silicone bristles. Spread butter, oil or glaze on food • Scoop – Same as the parisienne scoop; can also be used to cut out the unwanted stems like that of a tomato • Swivel Peeler - Blade may be mounted horizontally or vertically on the handle. Blade is typically 2–3 inches long. Peeling skin from vegetables and fruits. Swivel action accommodates contours of ingredients Pureeing & Mixing: • Blender - Consists of a base that houses the motor and a removable lidded jar with a propeller-like blade in its bottom. Speed settings for motor are in base. Jars made of stainless steel, plastic, or glass; available in several capacities. Excellent for puréeing, liquefying, and emulsifying foods • Colander - Available in a variety of sizes, is a stainless-steel or aluminum sieve, with or without a base, used to strain or drain foods • Food Processor - Motor housed in base, separately from removable bowl, blade, and lid. May have extra disks for specialized cutting. Grinding, puréeing, blending, emulsifying, crushing, and kneading. With special disks: slicing, julienning, and shredding • Food Mill - A type of strainer used to purée soft foods. A flat, curving blade is rotated over a disk by a hand-operated crank. Most professional models have interchangeable disks with holes of varying fineness • Immersion Blender - Long, slender one-piece machine; like an inverted blender. Top houses motor, which generally runs at only one speed. Plastic handle with on/off switch extends from top of housing. Stainless-steel driveshaft extends from motor and ends with blade, which is immersed in the food. Puréeing, liquefying, and emulsifying large batches of food directly in the cooking vessel • Mandolin - Blades of high-carbon steel. Levers adjust blades to achieve cut and thickness desired. Guard provides safety. Slicing, julienning, cutting gaufrettes and batonnets • Meat Pounder - May be freestanding machine or attachment for a standing mixer. Should have disks of varying sizes; in general will have a feed tray and a pusher. Grinding; stuffing sausage casings (with attachment • Mixer - Electric machine has large detachable bowl of varying capacities (5-quart, 10-quart, 20-quart, 40-quart, etc. Bowl is locked in place and attachment rotates through batter or dough. Mixing, beating, whipping, kneading Paddle Attachment – Used for pretty much any batter Bread Hook Attachment – Used to make bread dough Whisk Attachment – Used for pretty much any thin batter; adds air and fluff • Pastry Blender – Used to mix hard butter into flour • Potato Masher – Used to mash potatoes • Ricer - Processes food by forcing it through a sheet of small holes, which are typically about the diameter of a grain of rice. Purees and makes a thick liquefied textured • Sieve (Wire Mesh Strainer) - Used to separate and break up clumps in dry ingredients such as flour, as well as to aerate and combine them • Tamis - A sieve consisting of a screen stretched across a shallow cylinder of wood or aluminum Measuring: • Measuring Pitchers – Measure liquid volumes • Dry Measuring Cups – Measure dry ingredients • Measuring Spoons – Used to measure very small portions • Electronic Scale - Weigh ingredients for preparation and finished items for portion control electronically and shown digitally • Spring Scale - Weigh ingredients for preparation and finished items for portion control • Dipper – Water displacement??? Pots/Pans/Containers: What are the advantages of the following metals for pots and pans? • Aluminum – Excellent conductor; Heats quickly but is susceptible to burning food if it is a light gauge • Copper - Transfer heat rapidly and evenly • Stainless Steel - Poor conductor of heat but works best for baking in a lighter gauge; easy maintenance • Cast Iron - Capacity to hold heat well and transmit it very evenly Types of Pans: • Sauteuse - Shallow skillet with sloping sides and a single long handle • Sautoir - Shallow skillet with straight sides and a single long handle • Gratin Dish - Shallow oval baking dish; ceramic, enameled cast iron, or enameled steel. Baking gratins • Griswald - A cast iron rondeau; wide, shallow pot with two loop handles • Saucepan - Has straight or slightly flared sides and a single long handle • Stockpot - Large pot, taller than it is wide, with straight sides; may have a spigot • Rondeau - Wide, fairly shallow pot with two loop handles; may have a single short handle rather than two loop handles. A brasier is similar; may be square instead of round • Sheetpan - Very shallow rectangular pan; may be full or half size. Baking or storing • Ramekin – Round, straight-sided ceramic dish; comes in various sizes. Baking soufflés; sometimes for molding frozen soufflés; sauce cups; baked custard; baked or chilled puddings; gratins; and a variety of other uses • Roasting Pan -Rectangular pan with medium-high sides; comes in various sizes. Roasting or baking • Fish Poacher - Long, narrow lidded pot with straight sides; includes a perforated rack for holding fish • Wok – Multi-purpose. Think stir-fry • Bain Marie - Nesting pots with single long handle. “Bain-marie” also refers to stainless-steel containers used to hold food in a steam table • Hotel Pan - Rectangular pans, available in a wide range of sizes. Chafing dishes and hotel pans are usually of standard sizes, so most of them will fit together properly. Occasionally for preparing foods but more often to hold cooked foods in steam tables, hot boxes, or electric or gas steamers. Frequently used to hold meats being marinated and for refrigerated food storage • Crepe Pan - Shallow skillet with very short, slightly sloping sides; most often made of rolled or blue steel • Steamer Pan - Pair of stacked pots; lidded top
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