All Lecture and DIscussion notes for Comparative Politics

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Political Science
Amel Ahmed

What is Politics? Wednesday, September 04, 2013 12:19 PM "Who gets what; when, where, and how." - Harold Lasswell The politics of anything involve: Scarcity (paramount) -Where there is no scarcity, there is no politics, because there is no need to persuade, manipulate, lie, scheme, etc. because everyonegets what they want, when they want. -Politics can exist in families, classroom, between friends, businesses, high politics (U.N., Senate, etc)... Distribution -Institutions provide a system of preset rule to try answer the who gets what, when where and how before it devolvesinto petty political bickering Authority -the final decision must be made at some point, by some one. The Politics of Tea -Tea is a basic commoditysubsidized in Egypt, but it still counts as a limited resource, and thereby induces the concept of Scarcity. -poverty:can't afford enough tea, poor quality of tea -variety:only have governmenttea, but demand is for Twinings -Agriculture: not enough land to grow tea -space/service:not enough teacups, teapot size -priority: who gets tea first, how fast you get the tea -control: he who controls the teapot controls the tea -uneven distribution: some people get more tea than others, greed -resources: how to create the hot water, can only make so much tea at once -The scarcity provides a need for an authority figure to take control and deal out the tea in whichever order s/he sees fit. -Old Aunty says: Elders get tea, then Guests, then Aunts and Uncles, then Cousins Who is Who? The process of assigning value and status to groups and individuals -who made Old Aunty in charge? -who made it traditional that Elders have tea priority? -what makes different groups (racial, ethnic, gender, familial) more important? Politics: A Working Definition Patterns of human interaction that delineate distinct groups and determinethe distribution of material, spiritual, intellectual, and cultural goods within and between groups. ComparativePolitics: Seeks to understand why different patterns of political interaction emerges in different locations. -why are some places democraticand others authoritarian? -why are some rich and some poor? -why are there revolutions? -why do ethnic groups fight? -why are some states strong and some weak? -if everybodywants peace and good governmentswith enduring prosperity, why does it not exist? Building Blocks of the Modern World STATE Growth NATION MARKET 9/9/13 Discussion Monday, September 09, 2013 11:14 AM Interests, identities and institutions Interests: what draws it or repels it from, for instance, conflict? Identities: how does a nation view itself (individualistic, dependent, democratic,liberal, unified, warlike, violent, pacifistic, etc.) Institutions: what groups have influence in this matter? "Obama Tests Limits of Powerin Syrian Conflict" by Charlie Savage, The New York Times What can we learn about the political system of the US from this article? ○ One person in charge of government(Executive) ○ Asks for permission from democraticallyelected representatives(Congress) ○ Written laws which can take different meanings\precedentis importantto the system ○ The President can create precedent What are the INTERESTS/IDENTITIES/INSTITUTIONSthat allow/preventthe US from going to war? ○ Interests:  Regional stability (pro war)  Humanitarian interests regarding chemical weapons use (pro)  No allies (anti war)  Violating international law (anti) ○ Institutions  UN  Congress  NATO  Constitution Building Blocks: STATE Monday, September 09, 2013 12:08 PM Definition: Ideal Type The State "[A] Human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory." Weber 1919 Key Features of this definition Territory Not all political organizations need territory The state is the most dominant form of political organization today, but it was not always that way, and likely will not always be that way Implies borders Territory tells you WHO is within it, which is why nomadic tribes cause such problems Organization Most important feature of the modern state: bureaucracy Some system of organization keeps a state functioning and gives it continuity Continuity is unique to the modern society. What we do today is what we did yesterday and what we’ll do tomorrow Authority Monopolizes physical force: the state holds the guns, as it were It doesn't have to have all the guns, but it has to have the biggest, baddest, loudest guns, better than any internal competitors guns Origins of the State Began in 17th century Europe (early 1600s) Replaced Feudalism as the dominant form of polorg Feudalism: Network of reciprocal economic, military, and legal obligations Lord owns land, vassals work the land Personally networking was the basic equivalent of bureaucracy Key features No fixed borders (non-rigid) territory determined by whatever you can hold onto with your armies Flexibility provided opportunities for princes to survive Multiple decentralized authorities Lots of princes vying for authority The Catholic Church is the largest overarching authority, and competes with the princes for revenue and land and whatnot Lack of bureaucratic system How/Why did the state emerge from Feudalism? Why not the Family? Why not extensive tribal networks? Why not a Theocratic Federation? For that matter, why did Feudalism not persist Components necessary to the emergence of the State Feudal system Scattered territories Multiple and overlapping authority Created significant and constant conflict Contrast to tribal system, which is similarly disorganized, but there are fewer opportunities for man-to-man conflict No systematic organization War-making and military revolution Charles Tilly Creates a condition of being constantly at war, and then forcing citizens to pay for it. "Organized crime" Evolution of war-making Military revolution = intensification of violence Armies became progressively more destructive and expensive to build Gunpowder introduced Standing armies (compared to calling up for soldiersafter a war was declared) Standing armies act as a serious deterrent to conflict CompPol Page 4 Standing armies act as a serious deterrent to conflict Inefficient and expensive, granted Requires constant source of revenue (see below) Taxation Need to know how many people you have, how much they have and how much you can get from them Introduction of bureaucracy Protestant reformation (1444-1544 ish) Rejecting the claim of the Pope and Catholic church in favor of more local interpretations of the Bible Strengthen the claim of a secular authority (the claim of the princes rather than the claim of the church Amalgamation of territories based on language 1648: Treaty of Westphalia The "last princes standing" get together and decide that being constantly at war was far too expensive and too much effort, so they manage to agree on definite borders Agreement over who rules what Catholic church has sovereign authority over a very small area (currently down to merely Vatican City) Settles disputes between secular and religious authority (triumph of Prince over Pope) The bureaucracy is already in place, due to the necessary taxation caused by the military revolution What does the State do? Ends versus Means The states only wants compliance "If the state is to exist, the dominated must obey the authority claimed by the powers that be." Weber State has monopolized the ability to wage war All policies are built, and the state merely wants you to agree and be content with it Strong states have the compliance of their citizens, weak states do not. Government State Public Policymaking Implementation Comply? Enforcement Reject? Congress; politicians; Police; military; NSA; courts; lobbying groups; unions education (administration, teachers); Corruption: when agent of the state start making policy Ex. Policeman lets you go with a warning because you're the chief's kid Ex. Military coup d'etat in Egypt made them both state and government EXCEPTION: bureaucracy often requires agents of the state to make policies State only requires that you comply with their rules Mafias can replace a government institutes state Superheroes, in an oblique way, also kind of institute their own states Role of Violence States control "you" through the threat of violence: threat of a parking ticket, of jail, of pain, of hunger, of social ostracism… Without violence, there is no reason to comply, but that doesn't mean that violence is the only thing that incites compliance Carrot-and-stick In state making (Tilly) Intensity of violence>Standing armies>Taxation>Organization legitimacy ("legitimateuse of physical force") A successful state combines threat of force and legitimacy so well, that theoretically you no longer know why you're complying Ex. A stop sign. Threat of force: ticket from cop. Legitimacy; sign is there in case a car comes by and hits you. Combined force and legitimacy make it such that you stop at a stop sign even at 3 in the morning, when neither really are in act. Sources of legitimacy Performance Identity CompPol Page 5 Building Blocks: NATION Wednesday, September 11, 2013 12:22 PM Definition: "a named human population sharing a historic territory, commonmyths and historical memories, a mass public culture, a commoneconomyand commonlegal rights and duties for all members." Anthony D. Smith "An imagined political community--and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign" Anderson: Imagined communities Imagined vs real communities "all communitieslarger that primordial villages of face to face contact (and perhaps even these) are imagined" p.6 Real communities:face to face contact, goods exchange, personal interaction Imagined communities:linked to people we know nothing about (are you american?So is some guy in Wisconsin, but you don't know him) All communitieswhere you do not have face-to-facecontact with everyonein it are considered "imagined" Modern Nation: ability to communicatewith strangers Communicationof meaning, due to the same frame of reference (ex. George W jokes are famous nationwide) Origins in 18th century Europe ProtestantReformation "dethronementof Latin" : removalof Latin as the only 'official' language Elite class could communicatewith each other, but even from village to village, dialects were so estranged from one another that the only people you could really communicatewith were your village Makes it such that an identified "nation" was super small Allowed for the mass dissemination of ideas in particular vernaculars (local languages) Print Capitalism Increased production and availability of books via Gutenberg's printing press "the logic of capitalism thus meant that once the elite Latin market was saturated, the potentially huge marketsof the monoglotmasses would beckon" French Revolution:first massive expression of national identity Gellner: Nations and Nationalism Demands of the Market Demands of industrialization/industrial revolution Required ease of communication Needed a least commondenominator of communicationto spread meaning quickly Role of State Because of demands of the market,state instituted standardized education to create a viable workforce Trained to have a set of analytical skills in order to apply information from one situation to another States and Nations Sometimes,but do not always overlap Nations that have no state: Kurds, Basques, Tibetans, Palestinians, Quebecois States with several nations within them: Nigeria, India, USA, UK Note: Must have an aspiration toward sovereignty 9/16/13 Discussion Monday, September 16, 2013 12:24 PM The Nation: associated concepts are generally positive(flags, patriotism,USA…) The State: not generally positive, lots of focus on authority or police (FBI/CIA, police, hierarchy…) Primordialists: who Anderson et al are arguing against; people who believe the nation is a given aspect of human nature Invented Imagined Gellner Anderson You are aware that it is You construct it for yourself, and thus believe it as though it was real constructed Sounds "false" Is "real" because it hold meaning for people No face to face contact, so you imagine a comraderywith people you have never met CONSTRUCTED CONSTRUCTED Emergence of "Nation" as an imagined community 1. Capitalism Emergence of capitalism over feudalism Emergence of middle/artisanclass One monetarysystem 2. ProtestantReformation Undermines theological dominance Rise of secularism People question the authority of the church Desire to interpret bible for themselvesin their own language 3. Invention of printing press Gutenberg Spread of vernacular Bible put into massive production 4. Spread of vernacular/powerof language Legal documents,sermons, international relations, etc. all done in Latin Slow spread and eventual dominance of local languages 5. Print capital Latin market becomessaturate, so they turn to vernacular markets in order to make more money Publishing houses consolidate local vernacularisms,spreading certain languages throughout certain regions More people speak High Prussian than Bavarian Czech, so publishers print in High Prussian, and Bavarian Czech dies a slow death Latin dies out in favor of the monoglottaldominance of the masses' vernaculars Building Blocks: MARKET Wednesday, September 11, 2013 12:23 PM The Industrial Revolution Definition: "A period of sustained and unprecedented economic growth starting in the mid-18th century and continuing through the present time" Malthusian Crisis Sir Thomas Robert Malthus - "Essay on Population" (1798) Population grows exponentially 2 people can have 5, 10, 20 children Food grows arithmetically There's only a little bit of land available upon which the grow food Production can never outpace consumption Once the food supply runs out, you're looking at a human crisis War Famine This "regulates" population growth to bring down the population to a sustainable level The Industrial Revolution has, so far, been able to avoid a Malthusian Crisis "By sustained economic growth, I mean that output has grown at a more rapid rate that population" North, Structure and Change Scarcity is still, of course, an issue, but our aggregateproduction has still outstripped out aggregatepopulation growth NOTE: "State" usually refersto the governmentin actual country cases, rather than purely theoretical concepts Adam Smith: Spontaneous Growth Division of Labor Production is so much more efficient Specialization Differencebetween production through artisan (cobbler, cooper…), which requiresone person to make the entirety of a product, rather than dividing labor into an assembly-line-type structure Production increasesexponentially No longer producing for your own needs Producing labor Trade labor for wages, and wages for food Natural Inclination to Barter Now that you have such a surplus, you trade Example of Economic Liberalism Minimal/no role for the state "no regulation of commercecan increasethe quantity of industry in any society..." No economic role for the state Has a role in the common defense, in the infrastructure, etc, but should not be making any economic decision "Invisible hand" of the market Belief in the power of markets to spontaneously produce economic growth Just stand back and watch it go Commercialregulation is NOT okay Douglas North State-promoted growth Role of the State in creating the market Markets do create themselves naturally Markets versus "The Market" Markets "The Market" Production Subsistence Commercial Purpose Based on personal exchange of goods Based on impersonal exchange and capital accumulation (barter/trade) Scope Local and immediate Transnational and long-term Location Exists within a dense social network Exists on a broader social spectrum, involving non-face-to- face transactions ("imagined communities") Enforcementof easily enforced personally and for low cost (round Transaction costs prohibitive to enforce personally contracts up your buddies and knock on a door) (necessitates the involvement of state) Makes the law Enforces the law CompPol Page 8 Enforces the law Example of Economic Institutionalism The Market cannot exist without the state State has an economic role Role of the Sate Enforce Contract (ex. Making sure you pay your grocerybill) Establish Legal framework (ex. Shape property rights/patent laws) Karl Polanyi State-regulated growth Critique of Economic Liberalism Criticism of Douglas North Markets are something created by humans, for humans, and must be regulated by humans Has no self-regulating mechanism Has a tendency to self-destruct State needs to adjust the market, to regulate it (tell it when to speed up, when to slow down…) Role of the State Regulates the rate and direction of change Promotes market activity (similar to North) Undermines market activity (hinders inherent destructive tendency) Allow for "sustained...economic growth" (from the definition of industrial revolution above) Destructive Tendencies of the Market The commodity fiction Land, labor and money are fictitious commodities It is critical that these things are treated as commodities Land Was not something created to be placed on the market Only becomes a commodity once you parcel it out and put a price on it Labor Not a natural commodity Life was not created for sale on the market Take hours of our day and sell them for a wage Commodification is necessary for the modern function of the market Perishable Commodities The human factor The market can't tell the difference between the "real" commodities (ex. A table) or a fictitious commodity (ex. Life) The issue is that when there is a surplus of tables, they can be put in a warehouse until the market is better, but labor can't be withheld because people will die Example: The United Kingdom Stage 1: Destructive Tendencies- The enclosure movement Movement to make the "commons," areas where everybody used the land for pasture individually owned Enclosures came up as fences or hedges to separate land Idea that "this area of land is MINE" Crown starts parceling out land to lords in high standing Famine; the people who were using the land for subsistence are forced out and begin to starve Reversal of enclosures (return to the commons because people were starving) "...used the power of the crown to slow the rate of progressuntil it became socially bearable…" Significance of enclosures Makes land a commodity (i.e. property rights) Promotes market activity State regulation Ability to slow down Forced people off the land and into cities Stage 2: Destructive Tendencies Industrial Production Division of labor/assembly line As people flow into the cities, they enter the labor market Turns labor into a commodity People divide up their time and sell it Competition for work So many people flowed into the cities, there was no longer enough work Price of labor falls Issue with human time as a commodity; you can't put humans in a warehouse because they'll starve State Regulation Speenhamland Scale CompPol Page 9 Speenhamland Scale Part of the "poor laws" Made sure the price of wages did not drop below the point where you could not eat Linked to the price of bread "minimum wage" 1st modern welfare system Links wages to the price of bread Underminesmarket activity Temporarilystifled market growth which PISSED OFF a lot of people But allowed for sustained economic growth State stepped in and Success of England came not only in idea of Speenhamland scale, but also the fact that they successfully implemented and enforced it. Repeal of the Poor Laws End of the WelfareSystem Created a (free) labor market Restored marketactivity after a period of adjustment Time and Sequencing: 1. Enclosure Movement a. Poor Laws b. Repeal of Poor Laws 2. Labor Market 3. Growth CompPol Page 10 Economic Development Monday, September 23, 2013 12:26 PM STATE Economic Growth NATION MARKET The UK in Comparative Perspective 1st country to emerge as a modern industrial nation-state "nation" in France First "state" in Spain first Modern-industrial nation-state in UK first Advantages (to being first): More time (to get ahead) Limited competition Disadvantages (to being first): No example to follow Explaining Economic Growth Organization of Production Smith Division of labor and specialization Property Rights North Enforcing Contracts Regulation Polanyi Limiting destructive tendencies Speeding up and slowing down Alexander Gerschenkron Historical Stages Early Developers England Nation-State First France Middle Developers Germany United States Russia Late Developers (Part 2) Middle Developers Alexander Gerschenkron Timing Matters Both the variables of economic development and their interaction change over time The state and nation will never look the same after England The state and nation will never look the same after England Economic backwardness "the tension between the actual state of economic activity in a country and the existing obstacles to economic development, on the one hand, and the great promise inherent in such development, on the other" All countries have thepromise of an England within them The idea of "catching up" Compresses the timeframe Encourages countries to act differently (the state, the nation, the market) If you follow what the UK did, you'd be 150 years behind The later in time, the pressure to catch up becomes more and more intense Key Features of Economic Backwardness Persistence of serfdom (slavery)into the modern period i.e. persistence of non-market labor Scarcity of labor Inspired by the revelation of factories Factory workers vs peasants Need to push peasants off the land; "cut the umbilical cord" Need to convince landlords to release claim on the land Results in compresses time frame Lack of time can be disastrous Goal: economically develop in a sustained manner More than likely, the upheaval will be very messy Lack of Political unification Shortage of capital No previous capital accumulation on hand for industrial development The later you start, the more expensive it is, and the less money you have on hand 1. Textile industry is relatively cheap to set up (light industry), and England got first dibs in 1650 2. France came in later in the game, but they can't just jump into the textile industry, because England is already awesome at it. So they have to enter into the intermediate industries of coal and iron, which are much more expensive to set up in 1750 3. England, by 1750, had acquired enough capital from the textile industry to re-invest in coal and iron, which is serious competition for France 4. Germany then arrived in 1870 and has to jump into really expensive heavy industry (infrastructure) with pretty much no capital and competition from both France and England. Absolute and relative storage Costs of production increase Results in greaterreliance on state Strategiesof Middle Developers Imitation and Innovation Need to find dome way to compete in a world where early developers already got all the best stuff Not just technical, organizational "do industrialization differently" Ex: Evolution of banking system 1. 1650 - England - commercial banks Development: gradual growth over 200 years Light industry: textiles Lenders toward industry capital: individual entrepreneurs, commercial banks (short term [< 30 years] loans and floating interest rates, car/house loans) 2. 1750 - France- Credit Mobilier Development: more accelerated growth over 100 years Mid-range industry: coal and iron Lenders toward capital: state-coordinated private lenders (large families of old money), credit mobilier (large scale, long-term credit necessary for industrialization) 3. 1870 - Germany - Universal banks Development: accelerated over 50 years (deadline in WW1) Heavy Industry: infrastructure Lenders toward capital: universal banks (combination commercial and industrial bank) were state-run central banks that pull money from central banks and re-invest in industry 4. 1895 - Russia - counterexample (what happens when you fail to innovate and imitate) 4. 1895 - Russia - counterexample (what happens when you fail to innovate and imitate) Development: Highly accelerated growth, lead to extremely weak central state Heavy Industry: can't be supported without capital Necessitatesa central state-run bank, but the state is so weak, commercial banks successfully revolt against it, so banking progresses in "fits and starts" Consequences of backwardness 9/30/13 Discussion Monday, September 30, 2013 12:12 PM Evolution of Banking England Individual private lenders Commercialbanking (short-term) Light industry (textiles)began at home, so individual families could take out loans Conflict between family and factory industry Factory won, of course France State-organized private lenders Industrial banking/credit mobilier (long-term,large scale loans) There was resistance to industrialization initially, so the state had to heavy-hand the old money into contributing toward national industrialization Germany Universal banking (combination of commercialand industrial) State pulled money into a central resource and allocated funding from there Russia Failed banking system "fits and starts (industrial-->commercial-->industrial) What constitutes "economicbackwardness"? 1. Persistenceof serfdom Scarcity of labor Resulted in a compressedtimeframefor industrialization 2. Lack of political unity Shortage of capital Private versus state-directed growth Social Conditions England Shared Russia many small commercialbanks Wage markets created by end of Industrial banking offering capital to the newly feudalism and Enclosure movementin developed England and end of serfdom in Russia Crown had strong influence over Rulers had little control the old money and was able to lead over the old money, who them through the economicchange didn't want to give up without excessiveissue serfs initially Light industry: textiles Heavy industry Cultural resistance to non-agricultural industry Political Development Monday, September 30, 2013 12:28 PM Political Development Explaining political systems(regime types) Democracy Fascism Socialism Middle Developers US Germany Russia Explaining Democracy 3 hypotheses 1. Alexis de Tocqueville--politicalculture 2. Seymour M. Lipset--Modernization 3. Barrington Moore--SocialAlliances Political Culture Hypothesis Alexis de Tocqueville "Democracyin America" Democracyand individualism/egoism Modern societies promoteshyper-individualism Role off voluntary associations is to "pull you off the couch" and force you to interact with people and build communitiesto combat that individualism Interactions about politics in non-political environments Democracycannot thrive in hyper-individualistic environments Role of voluntaryassociations "In democraticcountries the science of association is the mother of science; the progress of all the rest depends upon the progress it has made." "voluntary association"= non-political associations;civic associations ex. Neighborhoods, non-state-run unions, charity non-profits, Red Cross, business organizations, charter/private schools, fraternities/sororities,clubs, marching band, churches (de Tocquevillesays yes, Putnam says no), sports teams... Robert Putnam "bowling alone" Critique of political Culture Hypothesis Too many disconfirming cases Ex. Weimar Germany Weak links between associations and politics Hinges on belief that non-political organizations will beget political discussions Anti-democraticassociations? Neo-nazi groups? Technically civic associations that fit into description WOW guilds? Also technically voluntary associations, but they definitely don't pull you off the couch. Useful Lessons: Democracyand Collective action Relies of groups of people acting in similar ways Relies of groups of people acting in similar ways More numbers behind a cause = more success Requires citizens who are able to organize and contact each other You, as an individual, look for signals form people similar to you for how to act/vote,because it would be very difficult to fully research the full extent of each candidate and then decide, definitively. Communicationand organizations "governments,therefore, should not be the only active powers; associations ought, in democrat Seymour Martin Lipset Economicdevelopmentis a social requisite of democracy The likelihood that democracywill emerge and enhance that stability of the democracyonce it has emerged Indications of economicdevelopment Urbanization Industrialization Education Wealth (need money yea/nay) Critique Correlation vs. causation, direction of causal arrows Economicdevelopmentand non-democracy Many outliers Nazi Germany Soviet Russia (high economicdevelopmentbut definitely no sign of democracy) Barrington Moore Indirect relationship with economicdevelopmentand political outcome 1. Nature of economicdevelopmentdetermines dominant actors in society 2. Dominant actors determine political outcome(i.e. political regime) Social origins of dictatorship and democracy Economicdevelopmentcan lead to democracy,fascism, and communism Social upheavals result in a regime Bourgeoisie revolt= Democracy Conservativerevolt= Fascism Peasant revolt = Communism Bourgeoisie/DemocraticRoute England "no bourgeoisie, no democracy" Strong middle class must be made Social alliance between middle and working classes Phases: 1. Elimination of peasantry Landed aristocracy turns to commercialagriculture Ex. Enclosure Movementtook the peasants off the land 2. Market Orientation Strengthening bourgeoisie Creating a labor market turns the peasantry into the working class 3. Bourgeoisie ally with working classes to defeat upper class Democraticincorporation is the price of alliance Fascist Route Germany and Italy Late industrializers Upper class is strong and the Bourgeoisie is weak, which leads to the Upper class is strong and the Bourgeoisie is weak, which leads to the working class becoming marginalized Alliance between the bourgeoisie and the upper class Socialist Route Russia Later industrialization Upper class is strong Bourgeoisie is weak Continuance of the peasant class Repressive labor law lead to a revolt of the peasant class 10/7/13 Discussion Monday, October 07, 2013 12:18 PM Barrington Moore'sRegime Types DemocraticRoute alliance between bourgeoisie and working class, advantage Bourgeoisie Ex. England Steps Phase 1: elimination of peasantry (landed aristocracy movetoward commercial agriculture) Phase 2: market motivation(bourgeoisiecreate labor market) Phase 3: Bourgeoisie ally with working class (democraticincorporation is the price of alliance) Fascist Route Alliance between bourgeoisie and upper class, advantage upper class Ex. Germany, Italy Steps Phase 1: strong landed upper class, weak bourgeoisie, and marginalized peasantry Phase 2: Alliance between upper class and bourgeoisie Phase 3: Rebellion from above Socialist Route Alliance between bourgeoisie and peasant class, advantage peasantry Ex. Russia Steps Phase 1: Strong upper class and weak bourgeoisie, plus continuing peasant class Phase 2: Upper class/bourgeoisiecreate repressive labor practices Phase 3: Peasant revolution Impact of Colonial Rule Tuesday, October 15, 2013 12:28 PM The Third Way Bangdung conference in1955 Leaders of the post-colonialworld: India, Egypt, Yugoslavia, etc Commonhistory of colonization Similar developmentalchallenges "First World" Western world capitalism "Second World" Soviet union Socialism "Third World" The situation and needs of post-colonialcountries are different Will pick and chooseamong 1st and 2nd world countries depending on what's appropriate for the individual country's situation Vast majorityof the world Everyonebut Europe and the Anglo-Saxon Countries (America, Canada, Russia, some islands) What is Colonialism Primarily an economic endeavor Extracting resources Finding new resources(especially raw material) Bring them back to Europe Develop/upgradethem Sell them on the world market for a profit Opening markets Europe is relatively small, so they wanted more marketsto sell to European Context Link to Industrialization Colonialism changes as industrialization p
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