Comparative Politics Notes Part 1 - I got a 4.0 in this course

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October 15, 2013 The Third World and the Impact of Colonial Rule Part 2: Spread of the Modern Industrial Nation-State Colonialism - the state, nation, and market all came about under colonialism (under foreign domination) What is the Third World? • The “third way” • In contrast to the first and second worlds of England and Russia • Bandung Conference 1955 • Encompasses a vast majority of the world • Significant Category? Common history of colonization • • Similar developmental challenges • Encompasses a vast majority of the world • Permanent Category? What is Colonialism? • Common primary motivation: Economic • Somewhat controversial to say colonization and colonialism is about economics • Extracting resources • Finding new (cheap) resources (raw materials) to be taken back to Europe and processed and sold in mass to other nations • Opening markets (elsewhere) • Police and military colonialism only came into play when those being colonized did not cooperate and resisted to colonizers • European Context • Link to industrialization • Competition among European Powers • Colonialism itself change as industrialism changes Two Models of Colonialism (side note: models are not actually this clean cut!!) • British model • Native-authorities • Used people from the population they are colonizing - hugely successful • Produces tension in population • Divide-and-rule • French model • Kind of opposite of British Model • Assimilation and integration as part of French “nation” • Much more extensive HEAVY settlement • Lasted for over 150 years - pretty successful • The Japanese Model: A Third? The Battle of Algiers • Film: 1966 • Portrays Algerian DECOLONIZATION: 1954-1962 (8 years) • FLN (Front de Liberation Nationale) • Algerian National Liberation Front Role of Violence For the Colonizer • • Colonel Mattieu • For the Colonized • “Weapons of the weak” • Gandhi vs. FLN • Bloodiest decolonization Decolonization: Struggle Over the State Not just a military struggle... • Political Institutions • Competing Laws • Economic Realm • Strike • Social Control • Wedding • FLN establishes their own laws • Taking over French government in Algiers • Communique outlawed drugs, alcohol, prostitution • FLN would punish people if they didn’t follow the rules “At the end of the day, the state is whoever gains compliance” • India vs. Algeria • India • British Model • Struggle for independence less violent • More social tension post independence • Partition - 1947 • Algeria • French Model • Struggle for independence more violent • Pattern continues post independence October 16, 2013 The Third World and the Impact of Colonial Rule Regional Patterns of Colonialism 1500s-1950s (Height of colonial endeavors) • Latin America • South Asia Middle East • • Africa • East Asia Latin America: Late 1500s - early 1800s • Colonizer: Spain/Portugal • Pre-industrial colonialism: colonizer had not hit height of industrialization at time of colonizing • (Extensive) Settlement and mixing (intermarriages) • Elements of the French Model of Colonization • Sets Latin America apart from other regions • Early independence: most of Latin America was decolonized by early 1800s South Asia: 1757 - mid 1900s • Colonizer: Britain • Linked to industrialization • British East India Company (1612): British company set up to extract raw materials
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