Solving Life's Problems (23-24)

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
Susan Krauss Whitbourne

Solving Life Problems Thinking "The purposeful manipulation of mental representations of information" The Mind's Eye Mental Images "Representations in the mind" Concepts "Mental grouping of similar objects, events, people…" Reasoning "Organizing mental images and concepts to draw conclusions" Reasoning "The process by which information is used to draw conclusions and make decisions" Syllogistic reasoning "Drawing conclusion based on set of assumptions" Ex: 2 assumption statements to make a conclusion. If ____ is ____ and ___ is ____ then this must be _____. Approaches to Solving a Problem Algorithms vs. Heuristics Algorithm "A strategy that guarantees a solution to a problem" Ex. a^2 + b^2 = c^2 Heuristics "A strategy that may lead to a solution but is not always right" Ex. Saves Time… Rule of Thumb, about an inch. Heuristics "A thinking strategy that may lead us to a solution to a problem or decision, but unlike algorithms-- may sometimes lead to errors" Representativeness Heuristic vs. Availability Heuristic Representativeness Heuristic "Judging the probability of an event based on judgments by the degree which something represents a certain category or group" Actual likelihood Availability Heuristic "Judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the event can be recalled from memory" Its available in your memory, and you remember it. Ex. People are more afraid of plane crashes than car accidents. Plane crashes receive more publicity Familiarity Heuristic "Familiar items seem superior" Ex.
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