Psychology 101 Study Guide Exam 2.docx

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Steve Conrad

Introductory Psychology, Psych 101 Study Guide for Exam 2: Textbook: Chapters 1, 2, 3 Chapter 1: 1. Theory- a system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations 2. Behaviorist viewpoint- a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior (effects of environment on behavior) 3. The sociocultural context of scientific research- trends, events, issues, and values influence psychology’s evolution (vise versa). * 4. Training required for psychiatrists vs. psychologists- psychologists go to graduate school to earn one of several doctoral degrees in order to enjoy full status in their profession. Psychiatrists go to medical school for their postgraduate education, where they receive general training in medicine and earn an M.D. degree. They then specialize by completing residency training in psychiatric at a hospital. 5. Humanist viewpoint- a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth (human experience) 6. Basic premise of evolutionary psychology- examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations. 7. Positive psychology- uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence. 8. Empirically-based knowledge- the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation. Chapter 2: 9. Inferences that can be drawn from experimental vs. correlational designs- 10. Social desirability bias- a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself; people who answer questions in socially desirable ways take slightly longer to respond (editing) 11. Placebo effect- a substance that resembles a drug bus has no actual pharmacological effect; occur when participants expectations lead them to experience some changes even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment 12. Measure of central tendency- 13. Advantages and disadvantages of experimental vs. correlational designs 14. Naturalistic observation- a researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects 15. Random assignment of participants (subjects) to conditions- occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study 16. Definition and characteristics of a theory- a theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations (it must be testable, supports their hypothesis, etc.) 17. Control group- consists of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group 18. Experimental group- consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable 19. Correlation coefficient- A measure that determines the degree to which two variable's movements are associated. 20. Experimenter bias- occurs when a researchers expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained (a source of error in research) 21. Indepen
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