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ESCI 1001 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Breccia, Sedimentary Structures, Biogenic Substance

Earth Sciences
Course Code
ESCI 1001
Study Guide

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1. What are the four types of products produced by physical and chemical weathering?
a. Lithic (rock) grains, resistant mineral grains, altered mineral grains, dissolved
2. Which of these contribute to detrital (clastic) sedimentary rocks?
a. Lithic, resistance minerals, and altered minerals
3. which one of the four is the primary source material for chemical/biogenic sedimentary
a. Dissolved ions
4. Why do geologists use texture to identify and classify detrital sedimentary rocks, but
composition to identify and classify chemical and biogenic sedimentary rocks?
a. Detrital are classified by their grain size because it reflects the amount of energy
it took to transport the grains and the shape can reflect their degree of transport
5. What information does texture provide about the origin of detrital sedimentary rocks?
a. Angular grains in breccia had little movement, conglomerates rounded grains had
long transport. Strong current gravel and pebbles so breccia and conglomerates
form in high energy, mudstones and shale in quiet water, sandstones in
intermediate energy
6. What information does composition provide about the origin of chemical/biogenic rocks?
a. Limestone & dolostone (carbonate rocks) form in shallow open marine, coal in
swamps from compaction of land plant material, rock salt and gypsum form in
arid environments with high evaporation, chert form from many silica-shelled
plankton on deep sea floor
7. How can you tell, even from a distance, that outcrops are composed of sedimentary
rocks based on their larger-scale sedimentary structures?
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