[MUS 3241] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (11 pages long)

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MUS 3241
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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German Vocal Literature and Pedagogy
Lecture 1
Pre-Romanticism
Enlightenment Period (Reason) (1656-1799)
Reform Society using reason (rather than tradition faith or revelation)
Advanced knowledge through science
Opposed superstition
Human Reason = tool to combat ignorance, tyranny and supersition
Religion was targeted
The aristocracy dominates society
perfect society
Science and Reason to explain natural order
Truths- rate of speed; laws; etc.
Age of Criticism: principles are figured out methodically
Leads to American, French Revolutions; Latin American
independence; Socialism, Liberalism + Fascism; Government is
hostile
Frederick the Great (1712-86)
King of Prussia (1740-1786)
Leader of the Movement
Sought out philosophers and scientists
French Revolution (1789-99)
Bastille Day
Aristocracy Severe left
American Revolution
Spawned literary works + government edicts
o Declaration of Independence
o Age of Reason- Thomas Paine
Didn’t believe in prophecy or supernatural aspects or miracles
Western Cultures viewed Enlightenment as pinnacle of society
Two Great Philosophers
Jean-Jaque Rousseau (1712-1778)
o Distrusted the aristocrats
o Despised the theatre (was a political arena)
o Didn’t believe in primacy of Enlightenment; more Romantic
o Hated organized religion corruption
Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) (1694-1788)
o French
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o Promoted Newtonianism
o Supported religion
o Liked the theatre
o Courted aristocrats for power but for democracy
Agreement:
o Monarchy is bad
o Rejected orthodox Christianity
Other Contributors
James Cook (British Naval Captain)
Ben Franklin
Goethe
Alexander Hamilton
Haydn
David Hume (Scottish Philosopher, historian)
Immanuel Kant (German Philosopher + physicist)
Thomas Jefferson
Moses Mendelssohn
Mozart
Sir Isaac Newton
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