[PSYC 288] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (17 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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PSYC 288
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Social psychology
In class notes 1/12/17
social psych: scientific study of the way in which peoples thoughts, feelings, behaviors, are
influenced by the other people (real or imagined).
-personality: individual focus
-This focuses on reason why a certain person acts in a particular way, and does not provide
rules to generalize to everyone.
-social: situational focus
Experiment #1
Latane and barley- social psychologists: experiments on bystander effect
-effects go group size on the likelihood and speed of response (groups of 2, 3, and 6)
-people had a phone conversation with other people in groups of 2, 3, and 6. Once the
conversation begins an actor pretends to have a seizure and they observed how many
people got up to find an experimenter to help. The experiments also told the people that the
phone conversations would be complexity private and no one would be listening in. Also only
one participant in each group was a real participant while the others were part of the
experiment.
-conclusions: when more people are in a group the response time for help decreases
Bystander effect
-pluralistic ignorance- the idea that its not really a problem
-diffusion of responsibility- when a lot of people are present the general thought is someone
else will do something which can lead to everyone doing nothing and nobody helping
Fundamental attribution error: tendency to overestimate how much peoples behavior is due to
internal disposition factors and underestimate the role of situational factors.
-personality is seen over social psychology .
Social Psychology vs behavioral psychology
-behaviorismrewards vs punishment on behavior .
-not focused on the thoughts/feelings of the situation.
-social psychology integrates behaviorism with gestalt psychology.
-gestalt psych: how people think about situations matter
-construal— the way a person perceives. comprehends and interprets a social situation
-focus on how individuals are influenced by their construal of social situations
-determined by basic motive.
-self esteem maintenance (feel good about self).
-social cognition (need to be accurate).
-social psychology emphasizes the need to feel good about oneself and the need to be
accurate.
-people often distort the way their perception of the world in order to beaccurate in the
way they view themselves (good).
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Social psych
In class notes
1/19/17
Major assumptions of social psychology
-how to study social influence scientifically
-not everyone acts the same war so it is hard to have a generalized classification for human
behavior
-Advantages: people view scientific studies as more objects than just assuming human
interaction
-Disadvantages: very difficult to measure human behavior. Can never be “fully” objective
Experiment
Barg, Chen and Burrows unobtrusively bring the idea of “ being old” to the mind of the
participants. Scrambled words into a sentence and told people to find the word that didn't fit. the
word that didn’t fit was either associated with being old, or it wasn’t. Then as the participants left
the study a Lab assistant would measure the walking speed with stop watches. Those who were
primed as “being old” walked slower than those who were not primed.
Replication (2012)
Study 1:
Failed to replicate when an infrared sensor was used to measure the walking speeds instead of
a stop watch. !
- why were the results not replicated?
-Human error when using the stop watches with the lab assistants.
-maybe the lab assistants in the first experiment experienced researcher bias if they knew who
was primed for “being old” and who wasn’t. So they made the results out to be what they
expected.
These results were replicated only when the confederates (lab assistants disguised as regular
people so they do not effect the walking speed of the participants) used a stop watch to
measure walking speed and was aware of the hypothesis. (So they knew who was primed to
“be old” and who wasn’t).
-they were aware of the prime condition of the participants and the hypothesis was that these
participants would walk slower than the others.
Social psychology is cumulative: criticize and build on theories and research, we should always
being learning from what we know and replicating experiments.
Social psychologists also use current events and personal events/experiences to generate new
ideas and experiments.
3 types of methods
1. observational method
-Question answered: description
2. correlational method
-Question answered: Prediction
3. experimental method
-Question answer: causality
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