[PSYC 289] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (12 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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PSYC 289
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Developmental psychology
1/10/17
4 domains of development
1. physical
2. cognitive
3. personality
4. social
Historical perspectives
-views on the nature of childhood:
-Preformationist: thought of children as miniature adults
-(1695- thought a small human was contained inside the sperm and just needed time to
grow into a regular sized adult)
-idea of original sin: children are born sinful and need to be taught to be good
-this leads to caused childcare and parenting (important for development)
-Locke- “Tabula rasa” or “blank slate”
-children are born as this blank slate and parents teachers teach them to be good
-Rousseau- innate goodness- children are born good and slowly become corrupted by the
world around them
-society should take a hands off approach to childcare. Basically let the children do what
they want with a small amount of guidance
Origins of developmental psychology
-baby biographers (like darwin): documented how children developed, they sometimes used
their own children to document.
-Scientific study of childhood (Hall, Freud, Watson)
The nature-nurture debate
-what is due to genetics vs what is due to the environment
-how much is genetic (heredity) and how much is due to the experiences that children
have?
-genetics (why do some identical twins look different?) - this could be due to the different
amounts of nutrition they got in the womb, (prenatal development) Environment influences
-“How does each factor influence development”?
Continuity vs discontinuity
-is development a smooth profession throughout the lifespan or is it a series of abrupt shifts
One course of development or many?
-is there only one developmental path that everyone should follow or are there many?
Change vs Stability
-is development best characterized by change or stability?
-life span development
-a patter of change involving growth and decline beginning at conception and lasting until
death
-became of interest in the later 1900s early 2000s
-Influence on development
-age-graded: specific to a certain age
-History-graded: cohort (specific group)- specific culture (pop culture) and how it varies
-non-normative: specific to an individual or small group of individuals
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Developmental psychology
1/24/17
Longitudinal studies
-advantages: stability/change within individuals
-disadvantages:
-practice effects
-attrition- people dropping out of the study (could be a biased sample that drops out, this will
effect the study)
-may only be valid for one particular cohort (one particular generation, may not be able to
generalize to other groups)
Sequential studies
-combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal
-advantages: can reveal age changes (within individuals) and age differences (across
individuals). Like a longitudinal study but it can be applied to multiple cohorts
-disadvantages: complex, expensive and more time consuming (worth it if cohort differences is
expected)
-
Ethical issues
-will there physical or mental harm? Is the harm worth what you would learn from the study?
-minimize and warn of any risk (with kid need the consent of parents or guardians)
-“informed consent” (waiver for people who are no of age to give their own informed consent
when the risk is minimal)
-need verbal accent from kids- the child has to say ok and want to do the study
-avoid deception
-Individual results or data must be kept anonymous or confidential
-Societies have established guidelines for ethical research (American psychological
association).
-Institutional review board- all studies need to be reviewed before a study can start
Genotypes and Phenotypes
-genotypes: genetic makeup of an individual
-Phenotype: Observable characteristics of an individual
Genetic foundation
-Chromosomes- store and transmit genetic information
-DNA - substance of which genes and chromosomes are made
-Genes- segments of DNA located along chromosomes
-Basic unit of heredity
-ensure genetic continuity (need to have similar enough so that people can mate) and
diversity (everyone is unique, besides identical twins. Needed to keep the species healthy
w/o genetic diversity, disease do not get weeded out of the gene pool)
-genotype = genetic blueprint
Chromosomes
-one cel - 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
-gametes (sperm, eggs or ova) - meiosis, 23 chromosomes
-zygote- 23 pairs
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