[CHEM 121A] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (17 pages long!)

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6 Feb 2017
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University of Nevada - Reno
CHEM 121A
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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University of Nevada Reno
Fall Semester 20XX
Teacher: Ms. Wendy Writer
Email: no_reply@example.com
Chem 121A
Notes
Chapter 1 - Matter and Measurements
Key points
Elements, compounds, and mixtures
Properties of matter
Metric system
Significant figures
Dimensional analysis
What is chemistry and why do we study it?
- Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes
Vocabulary
- Matter: anything having mass and taking up space
- Atoms: building blocks of matter
- Elements: matter made up of the same atoms
- Molecule: made of two or more atoms of the same specific shape
- Compound: made of two or more different elements
*compounds must have at least two kinds of atoms
States of Matter
- Gas: not distinct volume or shape, can compress or expand
- Liquid: distinct volume, no distinct shape
- Solid: distinct shape and volume
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*at the molecular level spacing and interactions between molecules can dictate their molecules
and behavior
The Elements
- Pure substance: has distinct properties and composition
- Doesn’t vary sample to sample
- Example: salt, sugar, water, elements
- 100% chemically pure substances are rare
- Elements:
- Can’t be decomposed to a simpler substance
- 118 known elements with varied abundances
Periodic Table
- Periods: horizontal rows
- Elements arranged in order of increasing atomic numbers
- Step-like line divides metals and nonmetals
- Groups: vertical columns with like elements with similar properties
Law of constant composition
- Elemental composition of a compound is always the same
- Percent of Mass = Mass of part divided by Mass of the whole X 100
Mixtures
- Contains substances that retain their chemical identities and properties
- Variable composition (states of matter)
- Heterogeneous mixtures: not uniform throughout
- Ie. wood, oatmeal, sand
- Homogeneous mixtures: uniform throughout
- Ie. air, alloy, salt, water
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