7P:075 Educational Psychology and Measurement Study Guide for Midterm Exam
Chapter 1: Learning, Teaching, and Educational psychology
What is Educational Psychology?
Adistinct discipline concerned with teaching and learning processes; applies the
methods and theories of psychology and has its own as well. Studies learning and
teaching and at the same time, strive to improve educational practice.
Types of research in educational psychology
Descriptive studies – surveys, interviews, dialogue samples, ethnographies,
participant observation and case study.
Experiments- single subject (systematic interventions to study effects with one
person often by applying and then withdrawing a treatment), mircrogenetic (observation
of entire period of change, many observations made, moment by moment dissection of
behaviors) longitudinal/cross-sectional designs
Principles versus theories
Principles are establish through consistent findings of theories. Theories can still
be disproven and aren’t universally accepted.
Chapter 2: Cognitive Development and Language
What is development
Orderly, adaptive changes we go through from conception to death. People
develop at different rates, it is orderly and it takes place gradually.
• Physical- changes in the body
• personal- changes in the individual’s personality
• social- changes in the way an individual relates to others
• cognitive- changes in thinking
Sensitive periods versus critical periods
Recommended times to learn something vs a biologically determined time
to learn something
Piaget’s theory of development • Sensorimotor- imitation, memory and thought. Object permanence, goal directed
• Preoperational- language, symbolic thinking, logic. Semiotic functioning
(conceptualizing something even if its not physically present), reversible thinking,
conservation, decentering (focusing on more than one aspect at a time) collective
monologue (group talk without interaction)
• Concrete operational- hands-on problem solving, conservation, seriation,
classification, reversibility, compensation and identity
• Formal operations- hypothetico-deductive reasoning (identifying all factors and
deduces solutions) adolescent egocentricism
Criticisms of Piaget’s theory
• Lack of consistency in children’s thinking
• Stages may be more continuous than previously thought
• Underestimating children’s abilities (prodigies)
• Cultural and Social influences
Implications for teaching
Vygotsky’s theory of development - did not detail the cognitive processes underlying
developmental change, consists of mostly general ideas
Zone of proximal development (ZPD)- an area between the child’s current level
and the level of development that the child could achieve.
How his views on language are different from Piaget’s
Vygotsky suggests that self talk moves children toward self regulation, it
increases at younger ages and then gradually loses its audible quality, it helps in
social interaction, increases with task difficulty. Piaget believes that self talk is an
inability to take the perspective of another.
Implications for teaching
Assisted learning, magic middle, imitative and collaborative learning,
scaffolding, thinking tools, dialogue and group learning, building cultural funds of
Language development What is common across cultures?
Language requires both physical and social stimulation, pla