Ed Psych Midterm Review.docx

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University of Iowa
Psychological & Quantitative Foundations
PSQF 1075
Stephen Alessi

7P:075 Educational Psychology and Measurement Study Guide for Midterm Exam Chapter 1: Learning, Teaching, and Educational psychology What is Educational Psychology? Adistinct discipline concerned with teaching and learning processes; applies the methods and theories of psychology and has its own as well. Studies learning and teaching and at the same time, strive to improve educational practice. Types of research in educational psychology Descriptive studies – surveys, interviews, dialogue samples, ethnographies, participant observation and case study. Correlational studies Experiments- single subject (systematic interventions to study effects with one person often by applying and then withdrawing a treatment), mircrogenetic (observation of entire period of change, many observations made, moment by moment dissection of behaviors) longitudinal/cross-sectional designs Principles versus theories Principles are establish through consistent findings of theories. Theories can still be disproven and aren’t universally accepted. Chapter 2: Cognitive Development and Language What is development Orderly, adaptive changes we go through from conception to death. People develop at different rates, it is orderly and it takes place gradually. • Physical- changes in the body • personal- changes in the individual’s personality • social- changes in the way an individual relates to others • cognitive- changes in thinking Sensitive periods versus critical periods Recommended times to learn something vs a biologically determined time to learn something Piaget’s theory of development • Sensorimotor- imitation, memory and thought. Object permanence, goal directed actions • Preoperational- language, symbolic thinking, logic. Semiotic functioning (conceptualizing something even if its not physically present), reversible thinking, conservation, decentering (focusing on more than one aspect at a time) collective monologue (group talk without interaction) • Concrete operational- hands-on problem solving, conservation, seriation, classification, reversibility, compensation and identity • Formal operations- hypothetico-deductive reasoning (identifying all factors and deduces solutions) adolescent egocentricism Criticisms of Piaget’s theory • Lack of consistency in children’s thinking • Stages may be more continuous than previously thought • Underestimating children’s abilities (prodigies) • Cultural and Social influences Implications for teaching Vygotsky’s theory of development - did not detail the cognitive processes underlying developmental change, consists of mostly general ideas Zone of proximal development (ZPD)- an area between the child’s current level and the level of development that the child could achieve. Private speech- How his views on language are different from Piaget’s Vygotsky suggests that self talk moves children toward self regulation, it increases at younger ages and then gradually loses its audible quality, it helps in social interaction, increases with task difficulty. Piaget believes that self talk is an inability to take the perspective of another. Implications for teaching Assisted learning, magic middle, imitative and collaborative learning, scaffolding, thinking tools, dialogue and group learning, building cultural funds of knowledge. Language development What is common across cultures? Language requires both physical and social stimulation, pla
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