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PSY 200
Jerry Cohen

Psych 200 9102013 100500 AM Population a complete set of observations having one or more characteristics in common could be people objects that the investigator is interested inConstant mathematical value that does not change eg piSample a subset or incomplete set of observations taken from population more defined and finiteTaking a sample in a random way with no bias the sample would be different from one anotherSampling fluctuation the variation from sample to sample that you will encounter when you select a sample from a populationTends to decrease as the sample size increasesChose a sample of size 99 one value is unchosenVariable represents different characteristics that can take on different numeric valuesWill deal with two different kinds of variables o Discrete variables also called discontinuous or qualitative variablesDiscrete variables can take on only certain numeric values has a finite value of any potential points on a number line It appears on the number lineThere are only certain values that are acceptableDoesnt always have to be an integer value could be 5 o Continuous variables also called quantitative variablesCan take on any value on the number line and theoretically it can assume an infinite number of values between any two points on the number lineWhen we use continuous measurements they are always estimates because theoretically we can break the number down further and further o Continuous measurement not exactreal limits also called the true limits exact limitsIt is defined as theupper and lower boundary of an interval that we use to measure a continuous variableto find a real limit of a stated value x33measurement unit o upper real limit1331335 o lower real limit 1331325 refer to notes for more examplesmoving truck examples they dont assume that your truck actually weighs 483 but they know that the truck weighs in between 533 and 433 Summation notation the symbolic way to represent the sum of a collection of valuesSee notes for examplesSuppose we have three inviduals with two measures XiyiIndividual 123 Individual 271Individual 256 of x 14of y10of x2 78of y2 46of the cross products the value of x times the value of y43Measurement We operate on numeric information the way we gather this information is the process of measurementDefined as the assignment of numerals to events according to rulesThese numerals are simply symbols the numerals will take on the property of the number depending on the level or scale of measurementThey do not necessarily have to be number but they do take on the characteristics of the number
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