[PSYC 301L] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 17 pages long Study Guide!

53 views17 pages
6 Feb 2017
School
Department
Course
Professor

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

USC
PSYC 301L
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Lecture 2 Notes
William James was almost more of a philosopher than a scientist
John Watson had 2 problems with analytic introspection
o 1. Extremely variable person to person
o 2. Unverifiable results
o He came up with behaviorism as a solution
Focuses on what we can see (behavior)
Focuses on stimuli-behavior relationship rather than what the behavior
tells us about the mind
John Watson and Rayner conducted the “Little Albert” experiment
o Classical conditioning
o Was not conditioned to fear just white rats, but also other similar things (on a
lesser scale)
o Inspired by Pavlov and his dogs
Skinner came up with operant conditioning
o Pigeons learned how to do things to get food
Example: peck a button six times results in receiving food
o Thought this was the end-all-be-all solution to bad behavior
Doesn’t actually reinforce good behavior
o Attempted to use this to change prison behavior
Issues with this include the fact that the reinforcement would not continue
after they left prison
Tolman discovered the cognitive map using rats in a maze
Skinner thought language acquisition occurs through operant conditioning
o In experiment, it was found that younger children cannot imitate complex
grammar structure as well as older children despite punishment/reward
Chomsky directly argued against Skinner’s theory, ending Skinner’s career
o Chomsky’s argument points:
Children say things they’ve never heard
Children say incorrect things even without punishment
Language is innate and biological, part of the mind’s construction
Chomsky came up with the idea of a universal language
o No proof, armchair science?
o Theorist not experimentalist
Chomsky helped create a more cognitive approach to language
Early computers processed information in stages which inspired the information
processing approach
o Which inputs are processed?
Cherry performed a dichotic listening test
o Can only focus on one sound at a time
Broadbent proposed using flow diagrams to represent cognition
John McCarthy coined the term “artificial intelligence
o Organized a conference to discuss it, very optimistic about the speed of progress
Newell and Simon’s logic theorist program could apply rudimentary logic to create
mathematical theorems
1956-birth of cognitive science
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Main purpose of modeling is simplification
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class