ADV 319 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: A.D. Vision, Trait Theory, Psychographic

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29 Nov 2016

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ADV 319
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Chapter 14: Psychographics: Values, Personality, & Lifestyles
The trend toward customization illustrates the influence of values, personality, and lifestyles on
consumer behavior.
Values determine whether consumers care more about individualism or put more emphasis on
social groups, for instance.
Together, values, personality, and lifestyles constitute the basic components of psychographics,
the description of consumers based on their psychological and behavioral characteristics.
o Traditionally, psychographics measured consumer lifestyles, but more modern applications
also include the consumers’ psychological makeup, values, personality, and behavior with
respect to specific products (usage patterns, attitudes, and emotions
o Marketers use psychographics to gain a more detailed understanding of consumer
behavior that they can get from demographics like ethnicity, social class, age, gender, and
I. Values
Values are enduring beliefs that a given behavior that a given behavior or outcome is good
or bad.
o Ex) you may believe that it is good to be healthy, keep your family safe, have self-
respect, and be free.
Your values serve as standards that guide your behavior across situations and over time.
Values are so ingrained that people aren’t conscious about them and have a hard time
describing them.
Value system our total set of values and their relative importance to us
They way that we behave in a given situation is often influenced by how important one
value is to us relative to others.
o Ex) deciding to spend a Saturday afternoon with family or exercising.
You feel value conflict when you do something that is consistent with one value but
inconsistent with another equally important value
Consumers facing such decisions consider not only the product’s immediate consumption
outcomes but also the product’s general effect on society and environment.
Values systems are often in place by age  because it’s one of the first things that children
Acculturation is the process by which individuals learn the values and behaviors of a new
o Ex) immigrants arriving to the U.S must learn new values to acculturate to American
Consumers are more likely to adopt the values of a new culture if they view that culture as
attractive and as having similar values to their own.
Acculturation also happens faster when people in the new culture group are cohesive, give
a lot of verbal and non-verbal signals about what their values are, and express pride in the
values that they hold.
A. How Values Can Be Described
Values can vary in terms of their specificity.
At the broadest level are global values, which represent the core of an
individual’s value system and are highly enduring, strongly held, and
abstract values that apply to many situations
Ex) Much of U.S. political philosophy is based on the idea of freedom, so
that value influences a lot of aspects
2 types of global values: terminal and instrumental
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Terminal Values-are highly desired states (like social recognition and
Instrumental Values- values needed to achieve the desired end states
(such as ambition & cheerfulness)
Domain-specific values are relevant only to particular areas of activity, such as
religion, family, or consumption.
B. The Values That Characterizes Western Cultures
Some of the values that characterize consumption in Western societies include
materialism, the home, work and play, individualism, family and children, health,
hedonism, youth authenticity, the environment, and technology
1. Materialism
One value that has become increasingly prevalent in Western cultures is
materialism (placing importance on money and material goods).
Materialistic people tend to gauge satisfaction in what they have and haven’t
acquired in life in terms of desired possessions.
Materialistic people tend to value items like cars, jewelry, and boats.
Symbolic items like a mother’s wedding gown, family mementos, and photos are
more important to those low in materialism.
Materialism consumers might believe that they would be happy if they had a bigger
house, a nicer car, or more expensive clothesbeliefs that can lead to stress if
family or life changes disrupt their financial situation.
Research indicates a weak connection between material possessions and happiness
Refocusing on experiences makes sense because the happiness associated with
acquired possessions fades quickly, while the positive feelings associated with
experiences lingers longer.
Another explanation to moving away from materialism is that the value conflict
between the individual orientation of materialism and the group orientation of
family-oriented values is associated with a reduced sense of well-being.
Materialism may relate to several terminal values (Exhibit 14.2 pg. 385)
Ex) possessions may be instrumental in achieving the higher-order value
of social recognition
Ex) materialism may reflect a high value of accomplishment if people
judge self-worthiness by this.
According to terror management theory, materialism is in part rooted in
consumer’s drive to relieve anxiety over the inevitability of death by deriving self-
esteem and status from acquiring and possessing things.
U.S consumers have a materialistic bent and in a materialistic society, consumers
will be receptive to marketing tactics that facilitate the acquisition of goods (like
online orders)
Consumers also want to protect their possessions (they get insurance)
2. Home
Many consumers place a high value on the home and believe in making it as
attractive and as comfortable as possible.
Because the outside world is becoming more complex, exhausting, and dangerous,
consumers often consider their home a haven but also look for opportunities to
connect with others
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