Ch. 6 ADV
Consumer Behaviour- is defined as all things related to how humans
operate as consumers.
Consuming= consumer behavior
o Consumer behavior from two different perspectives
1) Psychological: what happens in the consumer’s head
o It portrays consumers as systematic decision making makers
who process information, including information from advertisers
2) Social Beings: who behave largely as a function of social
circumstance and forces
o Two different perspectives at looking at the exact same people
and many of the exact same behaviors.
o Consumers are psychological, social, cultural, and economic
beings all at the same time. Ex. Why you buy KFC rather than Wendy’s
is a function of psychological, economic, sociological, anthropological,
historical, and other forces.
1) Perspective One: The Consumer as a Decision Maker
Many consumption episodes can be conceived as a sequence of four
1) Need recognition
2) Information searches and alternative evaluation
4) Postpurchase use and evaluation
A need state arises when one’s desired state of affairs differs from
one’s actual state of affairs.
- Need states are accompanied by a mental discomfort or anxiety that
motivates action; the severity of this discomfort can be widely variable
depending on the genesis of the need.
o Advertisers point out and thereby activate needs that will
motivate consumers to buy a product or service.
Convenience, reliability, nutrition, durability, and energy
efficiency are descriptors that refer to functional benefits.
Consumers may also choose products that provide emotional
benefits; these are not typically found in some tangible feature or
objective characteristic of a product. Emotional benefits are more
subjective and may be perceived differently from one consumer to the
Products and services help consumers feel pride, avoid guilt,
relieve fear, and experience pleasure. INFORMATION SEARCH AND ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION
The consumers first option for information is to draw on personal
experience and prior knowledge. This internal search for information
may be all that is required. When a consumer has considerable prior
experience with the products in question, attitudes about the
alternatives may be well established. Ex. Apple comp. are the best and
that’s what I have decided to buy
- Advertisers want the result of internal search to result in their brand
being in the “evoked set” that is the set of brands (usually two to five)
that come to mind when a category is mentioned.
The evoked set is usually highly related to the consideration
set, the set of the brands the consumer will consider for purchase.
The consumer then proceeds with an external