Midterm Study Guide.doc

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University of Texas at Austin
ANT 302
Suzy Seriff

Prompt for the Exam from an Audio Recording: March 8, there is a midterm test Format: 75 minutes; what you have to write will be within the time limit. 2 parts: five ideas from lecture and you will write an identification of each of them. Your answer must include some basic elements of the term: when does that event exist not year date but century. What it is, ideally you should use one topic sentence to describe what it is. How does it happen, why did it happen behind that specific phenomenon or event. Significant or the impact or the consequence of the specific event. Some of these elements don't apply to specific terms. The Identification should be a quarter of the page. Part 2: you will write 5 short answers. For this part is half a page is maximum and a quarter page for minimum. YOU REQUIRE A BLUE BOOK. How to prepare: lecture is the number one source; especially the ppt files from blackboard. In addition you may consult the textbook. (I record all lectures, if you have questions for clarification from lecture email me at [email protected] Give me a date and subject so I can find it easier and I’ll listen to him and give you the answer. If there is a delay give me some time, I have 3 exams on Thursday and I am switching between subjects.) does anyone remember the criteria for the second part of the exam? From what I remember, I think the second part is similar to the first except less extensive. The first half is asking for moderately lengthy description of the Vocab word. The second is more of “significance” questions or “differentiate X and Y” so they should be a little shorter. what do we have to explain for the short answers on important terms? is it who, what, when, where, why, how? i thought he said we didn’t need to know dates. Well, the TA just said we need to know the centuries of events. But I remember him saying on the first day we do not need to know dates. Nevertheless, I will add the dates. Is it just to write one essay, or a collection of short answers? Collection of short answers. IS This half a page maximum per question or whole??.. I never done this type of test before using blue book.. Introduction to China Mid-term exam FYI: BC=BEFORE CHRIST BCE-BEFORE COMMON ERA-THEY ARE THE SAME THING. :) AD= Anno Domini CE=COMMON ERA Study Guide I. Important Terms: Dynastic cycle What: 1. Patterns of rise and fall of dynasties 2. Stages a. Stage 1: Land Reclamation: light taxation; efficient government b. Stage 2: Population Growth: economic expansion; urbanization c. Stage 3: Expanded governments, land concentration:increased tax burden d. Stage 4: Government corruption and inefficiency, dislocation of landless, social instability: rebellion; foreign invasion; economy devastated; population wiped out What: Dynasties in Order that we have talked about in class. 1. Zhou: 1046-256 BCE (11-3 century BCE) 2. Qin: 221-206 BCE (3rd century BCE) 3. Han: 206 BCE-220 AD (3rd century AD) 4. Three Kingdoms (220-280) (3rd century) 5. Tang: 618-907 (Three different dates for this one. Which is correct. Look below under “Emperor Taizong on the Tang”) 6. N. Song (960-1127) (10-12th century) 7. S. Song (1127-1279) (12-13th century) 8. Yuan: 1279-1368 (13-14th century) 9. Ming: 1368-1644 (14-17th century) 10. Qing: 1644-1911 (17-20th century) When: 2100 B.C. - 1911 (I think the 21st century is wrong.)(21 BCE, perhaps) since the first dynasty, Xia (21st century BCE) until the end of the Qing (1911) Implications 1. “revolution” as a tradition ● Revolution is defined as a collective action of a social class to overthrow a ruling class. ● Conducted by an invading Non-Chinese or it can be conducted by Chinese Rebels themselves. But none of them (in or outside of China) would accept the current ruling Chinese dynasty as a sacred; therefore they could be overthrown. ● ● “mandate of heaven” a. If there are catastrophic events that occur such as tsunami or drought, the people believe that is is because the ruler is losing his “mandate” thus making it time for him to pass on the throne. b. I think this one is “revolution as tradition. Correct me if I’m wrong. people have the right to overthrow the ruler if the ruler was unworthy. If the people felt oppressed and abused by the ruler, they have the right to overthrow him. Manifested by happiness of the people. this is mandate of heaven. people would rebel and start a revolution if they didn’t think that the ruler was doing an adequate job. I think that the catastrophic event thing is right too though. c. CLARIFICATION: who actually has the mandate of heaven? the ruler or the people??? the ruler has the mandate of heaven, the people have the right to overthrow the ruler if he/she loses it. 2. “human rights” a. in China is different from human rights in U.S. - Everyone has right and access to resources. Government’s legitimacy is based on material well-being of people. 3. Theory: People’s Republic is another dynasty ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sinocentrism What: 1. The belief that the Chinese nation is the center of universe or at least in the mind of the Chinese people believe that China proper is the center of the universe. 2. All the surrounding world is nomadic and unorganized . China is the only civilized land. Everyone else is barbarian. Why: 1. Geographic isolation 2. Advanced culture and economy and urbanization 3. Foreign relations via the tributary system (neighboring countries bring gifts to Chinese ruler and Chinese ruler has obligation to help and protect neighboring states. Significance: If you want to develop a relationship with China, you have to come and visit the ruler in Beijing. Chinese leader will not come and visit other countries. China expects other countries to take the initiative to come and visit China. Nixon had to come to China to visit Mao. French ambassador kowtowed to the emperor. Wanted to be the most superior Communist ruler (reason for split from Russia during Cold War). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) Who: 1. Forefather of the Chinese Nation. 2. Founder of the first Chinese state that unified Chinese tribes a. only legends, no solid evidence to substantiate his existence. There is an annual 6-=sacrificial ritual on his birthday devoted to him 3. Chief of legendary 5 Emperors 4. lived for 378 years When: 1. Became prominent figure during Warring States period (5th-3rd c BCE) 2. according to legend, he ruled during the 27th and 26th centuries BCE What 1. (this is used by the government to get support from the people) 2. He is considered the ancestor of all Han Chinese: “We are the children of the Yellow Emperor” a. He is important in the formation of Chinese ethnicity and culture, and serves as an icon to maintain ethnic identity Where 1. There is a monument to honor the Shi Huangdi. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Oracle-bone inscriptions When: 1. (1600 -1046 B.C.)/Shang (17th-11th c BC) 2. Originally used during the Shang Dynasty for scripture. What: 1. Basis for documentation of the first Chinese dynasty. (The Shang) 2. Shang coexisted with the Xia and Zhou. Why/Significance: 1. Bone scriptures were used for ceremonial events in which the emperor was expected to fulfill in order to maintain the “Mandate of Heaven”. 2. Also allowed for first recorded history. 3. Primary source to know geologies, economic activities, structures, origins of scripts 4. These inscriptions became the basis of the Chinese writing system. Where: 1. Shang was eventually conquered by the Zhou dynasty which implemented the Feudal system. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Well-field system When: 1. (1066-770 B.C.) ... I have 11th-3rd c BC 2. During the W. Zhou (1046-256)- This would be 11th to 3rd c BC, I think pink is right. lol What: 1. Feudal system in which 9 pieces of land were divided among 8 Chinese peasant families. 2. 8 pieces of the land were privately controlled by each family. 3. The 9th was a shared responsibility in which all 8 families worked to produce food for the landowning aristocrat who ultimately paid tribute to the emperor. 4. The 8 were private and the 9th was communal. The communal plot was used to support ruling class. Why? - because each family was given an equal amount amount of land, prosperity was guaranteed -guaranteed with stable income ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The First Emperor of the Qin Who: 1. Unification under King Zheng, also called Qin Shi Huangdi/ Not satisfied with the having the title of “king” 2. The Qin formed an alliance with the Qi to take over all the other states but the Qin turned on the Qi in the end and took them over too. When: 1. Dynasty: (221-206 BCE) 3rd c BCE 1. Emperor: (259-210 BCE) What: 1. Consolidated empire after winning warring states war. 2. FIRST UNIFIED EMPIRE in China 3. Feudal System to Bureaucracy 4. The Age of 100 Schools of philosophy/ would keep books on legalism/ Confucianist’s killed for wanting to return to Feudalism. Consolidation of Empire: -centralized bureaucracy (feudal system gone) -standardizatoin of weights, measures, and scripts -ideological control-- burning books, burying alive 460 scholars -construction of road networks -construction of Great Wall -conquering the Yue in the South and Xiangnu in the North Why: The Qin rose to power because 1. Geographic location: The Qin had the high land 2. ⅓ China’s arable land 3. ⅓ China’s population Significance: 1. Created a Centralized Bureaucracy a. Standardization of weights, measures, coinage, and scripts, ideological control through burning books, killing scholars, construction of road networks, Construction of the Great Wall, Conquered Yue in the south and Xiongnu in the north Brownie Points: 1. Grand Mausoleum dedicated to emperor, Terra Cotta Warriors 2. Predecessor to the Han dynasty --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Emperor Wu of the Han Who: 1. Emperor Wu (140-86 B.C) 2nd c BCE-1st c BCE? Is that how you would say it? 2. Accepted Confucianism When: 1. Emperor: (140-86 B.C) 1. Dynasty: (206BC-AD 220) Significance: 1. Improves upon the Bureaucracy System implemented by the Qin 2. Splits China proper in half after it was unified by Qin Shihuang (Why did he split China??) because he thought China proper itself was to large to manage. He thought he could trust the princedoms in the east because it was in family control....turns out he was wrong and they still rebelled which lead to the fall of the Han a. The lands closest to the capital were easier to administer, so they were put under direct imperial control. The eastern lands were farther away, so they were given to the feudal lords to supervise. This concentrated more power in the emperor’s hands while allowing some autonomy for nobles. 3. Split ultimately leads to: a. Decentralization of power b. Rebellion c. Downfall of the Han dynasty What: Administrative System: 1. Partially controlled by government bureaucrats 2. 24 Commanderies in the West 3. Under direct control of Emperor and Aristocracy 4. Partially controlled by other dynasty family members 5. 9 princedoms of the Luis in the east 6. 7 princedoms of other surnames also in the east What: ( Regulations of Justice and Morality) 1. Limited Power of Autonomous States: a. Upon Prince’s death, had to apportion land for remaining children, eventually this led to the dissolution of “states” 2. People nominated to government positions jut had to be “filial and honest”. a. Didn’t have to be of noble blood. 3. “Rule of Avoidance”: a. Gov official couldn’t serve home country/province 4. “Inner Court”: a. Chief counselor sometimes turned Emperor into just a figure head 5. 1st systematic efforts to centralize empire ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Emperor Taizong of the Tang When: 1. Emperor Taizong: (626-649) 7th century AD 2. Tang Empire: (618-907) 3. Taizong ruled during a period of Unprecedented prosperity in China 4. Ruling period was called “Zhenguan Reigning Period”. a. Booming Economy b. Strong military c. Taizong was an advocate of good order and law What: -bulit marriage ties 1. Golden Age of cosmopolitan culture. 2. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers 3. Was greater than that of the Han period, and it rivalled that of the later Yuan Dynasty and Qing Dynasty 4. Cosmopolitanism 5. Developed new systems a. Equal field system i. System worked on the basis that all land was owned by the government, which would then assign it to individual families. ii. Every individual, including slaves, was entitled to a certain amount of land, the amount depending on their ability to supply labor. b. Land Payment System-what exactly does MU mean? it’s a measurment of area i. Adult male received 1. 80 mu worth of land (owned by state) about 15 acres 2. 20 mu (permanent property) ii. Adult female received 30 mu c. Tax System i. payments in grain, fixed amounts of labor or payments of cloth ii. 20 days of labor or 3.7 feet of cloth per day for 20 days iii. grain (2 shi per person) iv. Fixed amount of cloth (25 ft of cloth and 3 cattles of hemp per person) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Wu Zetian (Empress Wu) of the Tang When: 1. Empress: (690-705 AD) late 7th -early 8th cent AD/ (7th-8th c. AD) 2. Tang Empire: (618-907 AD) Who: 1. The only female emperor of China. 2. She was a ruthless usurper. 3. She was both benevolent and cruel. a. Benevolent to her people b. Cruel to government ministers What: 1. She was a concubine of emperor Taizong, and when he died, she was supposed to live the rest of her days as a nun in a monastery. 2. However, the emperor’s son(emperor Gaozong) loved her and he took her back from the monastery and made her his concubine. (gross) lol 3. This was considered incest by Chinese, but nonetheless, she had a baby girl with the new emperor. 4. When the new emperor’s wife came to visit him, Wu Zeitan strangled her own child shortly after her visit and complained to the new emperor that his visiting wife killed the child. 5. As a result, the emperor demoted his wife and Wu Zetian was promoted to position of being the new emperor’s wife. 6. When the new emperor died, she killed or banished the heirs to the throne. 7. She took over rule. She was a capable administrator. She instituted civil service exams to recruit government officials on merit and education rather than on noble birth. Significance: 1. The economy flourished under her rule. Showed that she was a capable ruler, equal field system promoted, and civil service examination ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Confucius and The Analects When: 1. Spring and Autumn period = (5th Century BC) 2. Han Dynasty =(3rd Century BC) 3. So He was born/taught in the Spring and Autumn Period. His teachings gained prominence over doctrines like Legalism/ Daoism in the Han dynasty Who: 1. Also known as Kong Zi 2. Ancient Chinese philosopher who was considered to be contemporary with Plato and Aristotle. 3. Initially a frustrated intellectual with ambition whom arose during a time of political chaos. What: 1. “Ren” (Perfect Virtue) a. benevolence, kindness, 2. “Li” (Rules of Propriety) a. recognizes the propriety of his father, also faithful of subject to the king 3. “Junzi” (being a superior gentleman) a. Recognizes the ordinances of heaven b. Righteousness c. Performs rules of propriety d. Humility e. Sincerity f. “The mind of the superior man is conversant with virtue; the mind of the base man is conversant with gain” g. opposite is the petty man, who cares about short term profit 4. Government: “...if people have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing for the state” a. number one is confidence in government b. Number two is food c. Number three is military 5. The teachings of Confucius and his disciples are recorded in the Analects 6. Also known as Lunyu. Where: 1. Confucius lived and taught his subjects in the state of Lu. He tried to go to other states to seek a position as political minister, but he was never accepted during his lifetime. Significance: 1. “I Hate Confucius” -Our Professors exact words So if we write this on the test, we’ll get credit? Haha 2. I would say that the rigidity of Confucius’s teachings led to a lack of ingenuity in society. Goodness/perfect virtue Who: Confucius What: 1. REN: a. "Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. If you are grave, you will not be treated with disrespect. If you are generous, you will win all. If you are sincere, people will repose trust in you. If you are earnest, you will accomplish much. If you are kind, this will enable you to employ the services of others.” b. The Master said, "Is not RECIPROCITY such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others." (The Silver Rule) c. Can be understood as being composed of zhong and shu. i. Shu: conveniently, has the sense of putting oneself in another person's shoes. ii. Zhong: is doing one's utmost. d. Try to see things from other people's perspectives, and then to do one's best for them with that in mind (Analects 6.30). e. Ren is also defined in terms of virtues: i. such as "Deference, tolerance, making good on one's word, diligence, and generosity." (Analects 17.6, Ames and Rosemont's translation). f. Being Ren can indeed be thought of as exhibiting the full range of Confucian virtues. g. Thus, ren can be rendered "comprehensive virtue." h. ALTRUISM !! -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mencius When: 1. (371-289 BC) /(2nd-1st c BCE) wouldn’t that be (4th - 3rd c BCE)? Who: 1. The Second Sage 2. AKA Meng Zi What: 1. Stressed the innate “goodness of human nature” a. Let them (all men) have their complete development, and they will suffice to protect all within the four seas. If they are denied that development, they will not suffice even to serve one’s parents 2. Benevolent Government (“Rule By Love”) a. “He who loves others is constantly loved by them.” b. “The people are the most important element in a nation; land and grain are the next; the sovereign is the least." c. People have the right to overthrow the gov if the gov is cruel and weak to the people. (different from Confucius teaching).
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