•1960s study on poor Midwestern black community called “The Flats”
•suggested that poor people coped by fostering kinship tie and fictive kinship links to form close,
supportive groups that ensure economic and social support.
•Swapping for food, shelter, child care helping each other out.
Known as generalized reciprocity.
•He did fieldwork. Study of drug use on Upper East Side of New York City.
•Mens activities: street corner car repair, selling drugs and working for contractors
•Womens activitives: baby sitting, seamstresses and tending bar in social clubs
- Drugs are seen as a legitimate source of income as well as an escape from theircondition
•Classes arise when one group controls the means of production
•The ideology of class
•Italian part of the Community Party of Italy.
•Important Marxist thinker
•He is renowned for his concept of cultural hegemony as a means of maintaining the state in a capitalist
Economic theorist of construction of Hierarchy (from powerpoint)
•In an anthropological spirit, then, I propose the following definition of the nation: it is an imagined political
community and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign.
•Born in china’
•Best known for “imagined community”
•Argues that the main causes of nationalism and the creation of an imagined community are the reduction
of privileged access to particular script languages
Samuel George Morton
•Viewed brain size as criteria for intelligence
Worked to justify inequality
•Concluded that Africans and native Americans were inferior race
William Edward Burghardt DuBois
•African A. sociologist and civil rights advocate
•was central in establishing a theory of the politics of racial identification, or why & how people have come
to identify as one race over another
•Concerned with how socially constructed perceptions about racial difference helped to shape racist
thinking in US.
•Established the primacy of the social construction of race over biological factors.
(1823-1892) was an important French theorist who wrote about a variety of topics. His famous essay
"What is a Nation?" (Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?)
A nation is a soul, a spiritual principle. Two things, which in truth are but one, constitute this soul or
spiritual principle. One lies in the past, one in the present. One is the possession in common of a rich
legacy of memories; the other is present-day consent, the desire to live together, the will to perpetuate the
value of the heritage that one has received in an undivided form. A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity, constituted by the feeling of the sacrifices that one has made
in the past and of those that one is prepared to make in the future
Stephen Jay Gould
•Proved Mortons findings to be wrong. He said that Morton threw out skulls that didn’t fit theory. That he
worked backward to determine race by size of skull.
•Made selective errors in arithmetic
•The culture of poverty theory
•He popularized it explaining the cycle of poverty
•The concept that poor have a unique value system that reproduces their burden of poverty and prohibits
them from rising above it
•He challenged scientific racism and evolutionary constructions of racial hierarchy
•Argued against the idea that physical, mental and cultural characteristics of groups were biologically
determined and represented distinctive racial types
•Instead he argues that there was a great deal of variation between groups. Equally gifted people in all
- Also said (in the Musuems PPT) that people are not a sum of their observable parts, and that objects in
museums should be viewed in context.
Sir Francis Galton
•Eugenics-efforts to “breed” better human beings
-author of Hereditary Genius: social position reflects innate intellectual prowess
•Won the contest for her poem to be on the statue of liberty. “The New Colossus”
•Mother of Exiles
•Gave liberty a new definition: freedom to come to the US and create a new life without religious and
· The complex system of culturally defined social relationships based on marriage
· Is based on the notion of common heritage.
· A cultural rule typing people on the basis of reputed common ancestry
· Descent guides inheritance, group loyalty, and formation of families and extended kin groups.
· Links a person to kin through both males and females simultaneously.
· Ex: American families
· Americans equally tied to maternal and paternal kin.
· Links relatives through females only.
· Males belong to their mother’s line; the children of males descent from their wives.
o Trobriand Island
· Relatives linked through males only. • Females are part of their father’s line, but their children descent from the husbands.
• Chinese Kinship
· The system where the married couple resides with the wife’s parents, thus the female offspring of a
mother remain living near the mother’s house.
· Married couple lives with father’s relatives.
· Marriage which consists of man that has more than one partner.
· Refers to the form of marriage in which a woman has two or more husbands at the same time.
· The requirement that when a couple marries, the groom must work for the bride’s parents for some
· The goods the bride’s family supplies to the groom’s family or the couple.
· Marriage gifts of husband’s family to wife’s parents.
· A social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside of a social group. The social group
define the scope and extent of it, and the rules and enforcement mechanisms that ensure its continuity.
· The practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or social group, rejecting others on such
basis as being unsuitable for marriage.
Kinship by marriage or adoption not by blood
•Brideservice at marriage
•Primary Relationship: husband and Wife
•Extended Matrilineal family (clan)
•Primary Relationships: Brother and Sister
•Dowry •Primary relationship: Father and son
social system where political conquest by one society of another leads to cultural domination with
Mode of production with links to class structure, production, and labor exploitation
The world is a market and everything has a price
Selling labor; people work in exchange for payment; ex: working in sugar cane fields, getting paid for
cutting the stalks
Capitalism seen as a world system between different regions tied together in asymmetrical fashion by the
exploitative relations of production and consumption
Capitalism analyzed as a world system, divided between dominant and subordinate areas
Surplus Value of Labor
The portion of a person’s labor that is retained as profit by those who control the means of production
Social Relations of Production
Relations between individuals in the production process
Belief that social relationships between people are connected to and objectified by things such as
Goods whose value come from human labor, and that are the product of “social relations between
individuals at work”
Societies characterized by hierarchical rankings of people and centralized political control over
• (1823-1892) was an important French theorist who wrote about a variety of topics. His famous
essay "What is a Nation?" (Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?)
• A nation is a soul, a spiritual principle
• A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity, constituted by the feeling of the sacrifices that one
has made in the past and of those that one is prepared to make in the future
Proposed by Benedict Anderson; Nations are invented, bounded territorial units, imagined as sovereign,
imagined as one community of citizens, rely on construction of collective traditons
Set of ideals used to define goals, vision, or ideas 45
Area with absolute power, having the ability and freedom to regulate itself
The political doctrine that asserts the nation and national identity as the fundamental political building
blocks of modern society
Being a member of a nation, provides holder with certain rights
those persons or groups who, by being somehow excluded or marginalized from the nation-state, accent
those persons or groups who are more legitimate members
Ultimate tool of a nation-state
American Bald Eagle
Emblem of the USA, represents freedom, seal of USA for most coinage and other exponents of the
Statue of Liberty
Gift to USA from France for 100 years of independence; important symbol for freedom.
•Condenses notions of identity, nationhood, history, values, morality, justice, honor
•Can be the protector of immigrants or the defender of nation’s borders against immigration
Poem written by Emma Lazarus about Statue of Liberty
Just as Lazarus' poem gave new meaning to the statue, the statue emitted a new ideal for the United
States. Liberty did not only mean freedom from the aristocracy of Britain that led the American colonists to
the Revolutionary War. Liberty also meant freedom to come to the United States and create a new life
without religious and ethnic persecution. Through Larazus' poem, the Statue of Liberty gained a new
name: She would now become the "Mother of Exiles," torch in hand to lead her new children to American
success and happiness
Benedict Anderson’s definition of a nation-state
•"In an anthropological spirit, then, I propose the following definition of the nation: it is an imagined
political community - - and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign.”
•"It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-
•The nation is imagined as limited because even the largest of them has finite, if elastic boundaries,
beyond which lie other nations.
the intensification of global interconnection resulting from the transnational flow of people, culture,
commodities, capital, ideas, information, technologies across national and regional boundaries
•A condition by which people, commodities and ideas literally cross--transgress--national boundaries and
are not identified with a single place of origin.
Transnational Corporations Corporations in which business operations, manufacturing, and marketing are spread around the globe, in
dozens of cities and societies.
•Ex: Disney, Coca-Cola, WalMArt; Nike: Dispersed production; centralized control
• Marxian idea of social class: outgrowth of capitalism, not a necessary feature of
• Classes arise when a group--a ruling class, landlord, boss--gains control of the
means of production
• Individuals are assigned at birth to the ranked social and occupational groups of
• A person’s place in the social order is relatively fixed; there is little mobility from
one caste to another
• Castes are separated from each other by strict rules that forbid intermarriage and
other forms of interaction
• ___ & Friedrich Engels created the “Ideology of Class”
o The notion that people in class societies come to believe that social
stratification is “natural”
• The hierarchical ordering of people
• Stratification based on income and personal possessions
• According to Karl Marx, classes arise when one group controls the means of production
• A person’s place in the social order is relatively mobile
• There are no laws prohibiting classes from intermarrying
Means of production
• consists of materials--such as land, machines, tools, that
people need to produce things
• Assumption: Social hierarchy is necessary for the smooth functioning of society
• As societies grow, they develop more labor-efficient means to produce goods. Indiv. specialize
• This results in a division of labor that needs greater coordination & more complex ldrship systems
• This leads to social stratification & development of systems of defense & internal control
• Point:Those who assume respons. for control are given greater rewards.
Assumption: hierarchy exists because one group of individuals seeks to take
advantage of another group for economic purposes
Point: Those who assume responsibility for control are given greater rewards.
Model of a living organism functioning with interrelated parts all doing their jobs
and regulated by controlling device
•African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are even more vulnerable to
structural inequality than white Americans.
• Many folks think of racism as a form of personal discrimination but when we look at the way power
works to create conditions under which one
group has no other choice but to do what another group wants, we see how racism
is also a structural, economic, and institutional phenomenon. 66
• Inequality between different groups’ access to social mobility and opportunity in
• Structures--political, economic, cultural and institutional--are organized in ways
that reinforce social stratification
• Scientific “Proof” that members of one race (whites/Europeans) were
intellectually superior to members of other races (blacks, Asians, native
•A group whose evident characteristics (phenotypical and cultural) are popularly
believed to be the result of underlying biological factors or genotypes.
a belief that the division of society into classes is both natural and right
•These institutions promote the idea that their own positions of dominance help to maintain the best
interest for all regardless of class.