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ANT 302
Suzy Seriff

1 Carol Stack •1960s study on poor Midwestern black community called “The Flats” •suggested that poor people coped by fostering kinship tie and fictive kinship links to form close, supportive groups that ensure economic and social support. •Swapping for food, shelter, child care helping each other out. Known as generalized reciprocity. 2 Philip Bourgois •He did fieldwork. Study of drug use on Upper East Side of New York City. •Mens activities: street corner car repair, selling drugs and working for contractors •Womens activitives: baby sitting, seamstresses and tending bar in social clubs - Drugs are seen as a legitimate source of income as well as an escape from theircondition 3 Karl Max •Classes arise when one group controls the means of production •Class system •The ideology of class 4 Antonio Gramsci •Italian part of the Community Party of Italy. •Important Marxist thinker •He is renowned for his concept of cultural hegemony as a means of maintaining the state in a capitalist society. Economic theorist of construction of Hierarchy (from powerpoint) 5 Benedict Anderson •In an anthropological spirit, then, I propose the following definition of the nation: it is an imagined political community and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign. •Born in china’ •Best known for “imagined community” •Argues that the main causes of nationalism and the creation of an imagined community are the reduction of privileged access to particular script languages 6 Samuel George Morton •Viewed brain size as criteria for intelligence  Worked to justify inequality •Concluded that Africans and native Americans were inferior race 7 William Edward Burghardt DuBois •African A. sociologist and civil rights advocate •was central in establishing a theory of the politics of racial identification, or why & how people have come to identify as one race over another •Concerned with how socially constructed perceptions about racial difference helped to shape racist thinking in US. •Established the primacy of the social construction of race over biological factors. 8 Ernest Renan (1823-1892) was an important French theorist who wrote about a variety of topics. His famous essay "What is a Nation?" (Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?) A nation is a soul, a spiritual principle. Two things, which in truth are but one, constitute this soul or spiritual principle. One lies in the past, one in the present. One is the possession in common of a rich legacy of memories; the other is present-day consent, the desire to live together, the will to perpetuate the value of the heritage that one has received in an undivided form. A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity, constituted by the feeling of the sacrifices that one has made in the past and of those that one is prepared to make in the future 9 Stephen Jay Gould •Proved Mortons findings to be wrong. He said that Morton threw out skulls that didn’t fit theory. That he worked backward to determine race by size of skull. •Made selective errors in arithmetic 10 Oscar Lewis •The culture of poverty theory •He popularized it explaining the cycle of poverty •The concept that poor have a unique value system that reproduces their burden of poverty and prohibits them from rising above it 11 Franz Boas •He challenged scientific racism and evolutionary constructions of racial hierarchy •Argued against the idea that physical, mental and cultural characteristics of groups were biologically determined and represented distinctive racial types •Instead he argues that there was a great deal of variation between groups. Equally gifted people in all groups. - Also said (in the Musuems PPT) that people are not a sum of their observable parts, and that objects in museums should be viewed in context. 12 Sir Francis Galton •Eugenics-efforts to “breed” better human beings -Darwins cousin -author of Hereditary Genius: social position reflects innate intellectual prowess 13 Emma Lazarus •Won the contest for her poem to be on the statue of liberty. “The New Colossus” •Mother of Exiles •Gave liberty a new definition: freedom to come to the US and create a new life without religious and ethnic persecution. 14 Kinship · The complex system of culturally defined social relationships based on marriage 15 Descent · Is based on the notion of common heritage. · A cultural rule typing people on the basis of reputed common ancestry · Descent guides inheritance, group loyalty, and formation of families and extended kin groups. 16 Bilateral · Links a person to kin through both males and females simultaneously. · Ex: American families · Americans equally tied to maternal and paternal kin. 17 Matrilenial · Links relatives through females only. · Males belong to their mother’s line; the children of males descent from their wives. o Trobriand Island 18 Patrilineal · Relatives linked through males only. • Females are part of their father’s line, but their children descent from the husbands. • Chinese Kinship 19 Matrilocal · The system where the married couple resides with the wife’s parents, thus the female offspring of a mother remain living near the mother’s house. 20 Patrilocal · Married couple lives with father’s relatives. 21 Polygamy · Marriage which consists of man that has more than one partner. 22 Polyandry · Refers to the form of marriage in which a woman has two or more husbands at the same time. 23 Brideservice · The requirement that when a couple marries, the groom must work for the bride’s parents for some specified time. 24 Dowry · The goods the bride’s family supplies to the groom’s family or the couple. 25 Bridewealth · Marriage gifts of husband’s family to wife’s parents. 26 Exogamy · A social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside of a social group. The social group define the scope and extent of it, and the rules and enforcement mechanisms that ensure its continuity. 27 Endogamy · The practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or social group, rejecting others on such basis as being unsuitable for marriage. 28 Affinity Kinship by marriage or adoption not by blood 29 Ju/wasi Family •Bilateral kinship •Nuclear Families •Brideservice at marriage •Occasional polygamy •Primary Relationship: husband and Wife 30 Trobriand Family •Matrilineal Kinship •Extended Matrilineal family (clan) •Bridewealth •Matrilocality •Primary Relationships: Brother and Sister 31 Chinese Kinship •Patrilineal Descent •Patrilocal residence •Ancestor Worship •Dowry •Primary relationship: Father and son •Clan Exogamy 32 Colonialism social system where political conquest by one society of another leads to cultural domination with enforced change 33 Capitalism Mode of production with links to class structure, production, and labor exploitation The world is a market and everything has a price 34 Wage Labor Selling labor; people work in exchange for payment; ex: working in sugar cane fields, getting paid for cutting the stalks 35 Center/Periphery Capitalism seen as a world system between different regions tied together in asymmetrical fashion by the exploitative relations of production and consumption 36 Metropolis/Colony Capitalism analyzed as a world system, divided between dominant and subordinate areas 37 Surplus Value of Labor The portion of a person’s labor that is retained as profit by those who control the means of production 38 Social Relations of Production Relations between individuals in the production process 39 Commodity Fetishism Belief that social relationships between people are connected to and objectified by things such as money/goods 40 Commodities Goods whose value come from human labor, and that are the product of “social relations between individuals at work” 41 Nation-state Societies characterized by hierarchical rankings of people and centralized political control over populations. 42 Ernest Renan • (1823-1892) was an important French theorist who wrote about a variety of topics. His famous essay "What is a Nation?" (Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?) • A nation is a soul, a spiritual principle • A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity, constituted by the feeling of the sacrifices that one has made in the past and of those that one is prepared to make in the future 43 Imagined Community Proposed by Benedict Anderson; Nations are invented, bounded territorial units, imagined as sovereign, imagined as one community of citizens, rely on construction of collective traditons 44 Ideology Set of ideals used to define goals, vision, or ideas 45 Sovereign Territory Area with absolute power, having the ability and freedom to regulate itself 46 Nationalism The political doctrine that asserts the nation and national identity as the fundamental political building blocks of modern society 47 Citizenship Being a member of a nation, provides holder with certain rights 48 Hated Others those persons or groups who, by being somehow excluded or marginalized from the nation-state, accent those persons or groups who are more legitimate members 49 Violence Ultimate tool of a nation-state 50 American Bald Eagle Emblem of the USA, represents freedom, seal of USA for most coinage and other exponents of the nation’s authority, 51 Statue of Liberty Gift to USA from France for 100 years of independence; important symbol for freedom. •Condenses notions of identity, nationhood, history, values, morality, justice, honor •Can be the protector of immigrants or the defender of nation’s borders against immigration 52 New Colossus Poem written by Emma Lazarus about Statue of Liberty Just as Lazarus' poem gave new meaning to the statue, the statue emitted a new ideal for the United States. Liberty did not only mean freedom from the aristocracy of Britain that led the American colonists to the Revolutionary War. Liberty also meant freedom to come to the United States and create a new life without religious and ethnic persecution. Through Larazus' poem, the Statue of Liberty gained a new name: She would now become the "Mother of Exiles," torch in hand to lead her new children to American success and happiness 53 Benedict Anderson’s definition of a nation-state •"In an anthropological spirit, then, I propose the following definition of the nation: it is an imagined political community - - and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign.” •"It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow- members •The nation is imagined as limited because even the largest of them has finite, if elastic boundaries, beyond which lie other nations. 54 Globalization the intensification of global interconnection resulting from the transnational flow of people, culture, commodities, capital, ideas, information, technologies across national and regional boundaries 55 Transnationalism •A condition by which people, commodities and ideas literally cross--transgress--national boundaries and are not identified with a single place of origin. 56 Transnational Corporations Corporations in which business operations, manufacturing, and marketing are spread around the globe, in dozens of cities and societies. •Ex: Disney, Coca-Cola, WalMArt; Nike: Dispersed production; centralized control 57 Social Class • Marxian idea of social class: outgrowth of capitalism, not a necessary feature of modern society. • Classes arise when a group--a ruling class, landlord, boss--gains control of the means of production 58 Caste • Individuals are assigned at birth to the ranked social and occupational groups of their parents. • A person’s place in the social order is relatively fixed; there is little mobility from one caste to another • Castes are separated from each other by strict rules that forbid intermarriage and other forms of interaction 59 Karl Max • ___ & Friedrich Engels created the “Ideology of Class” o The notion that people in class societies come to believe that social stratification is “natural” 60 Social hierarchy • The hierarchical ordering of people 61 Class system • Stratification based on income and personal possessions • According to Karl Marx, classes arise when one group controls the means of production • A person’s place in the social order is relatively mobile • There are no laws prohibiting classes from intermarrying 62 Means of production • consists of materials--such as land, machines, tools, that people need to produce things 63 integrative theory • Assumption: Social hierarchy is necessary for the smooth functioning of society • As societies grow, they develop more labor-efficient means to produce goods. Indiv. specialize • This results in a division of labor that needs greater coordination & more complex ldrship systems • This leads to social stratification & development of systems of defense & internal control • Point:Those who assume respons. for control are given greater rewards. 64 exploitative theory Assumption: hierarchy exists because one group of individuals seeks to take advantage of another group for economic purposes Point: Those who assume responsibility for control are given greater rewards. Model of a living organism functioning with interrelated parts all doing their jobs and regulated by controlling device 65 structural racism •African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are even more vulnerable to structural inequality than white Americans. • Many folks think of racism as a form of personal discrimination but when we look at the way power works to create conditions under which one group has no other choice but to do what another group wants, we see how racism is also a structural, economic, and institutional phenomenon. 66 structural inequality • Inequality between different groups’ access to social mobility and opportunity in the U.S. • Structures--political, economic, cultural and institutional--are organized in ways that reinforce social stratification 67 Scientific Racism • Scientific “Proof” that members of one race (whites/Europeans) were intellectually superior to members of other races (blacks, Asians, native Americans) 68 Race •A group whose evident characteristics (phenotypical and cultural) are popularly believed to be the result of underlying biological factors or genotypes. 69 Class Ideology a belief that the division of society into classes is both natural and right •These institutions promote the idea that their own positions of dominance help to maintain the best interest for all regardless of class. 70
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