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BIO 301M Notes for Test 4

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BIO 301M

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BIO Test 4 Video ­ though to be a million types of fungi ­ without fungi, rainforests cant exist ­ little buggies eat the mushroom, and then later it grows outta their bodies and  bursts to let its spores out everywhere and kills everyone Kingdom: Fungi Domain: Eukarya ­ Eukaryotic ­ Multicellular ­ Cell walls ­ Heterotrophic—eat other things to get their carbon Fungal Anatomy ­ some are single celled like yeast ­ most are clusters of multicellular filaments o hyphae (individual string) o Mycelium=collection of all the hyphae o Septa=ridges that divide them ­ A few are coenocytic= don’t have septa/ridges ­ Some have haustoria=special hyphae (burrow into cells to suck nutrients out of  them) Mushrooms are all underground. The little mushrooms we see just pop up occasionally.  Chilling there. its really this giant network underground. biggest organism on the planet  people think is a giant mycelium.  Life cycles ­ mostly haploid ­ plasmogamy=when they meet o two mycelia meet underground and fuse together. Nuclei don’t meet o hetrokaryotic/dikaryotic ­ karyogamy o zygote ­ meiosis o spores Life cycle of fungus. Blue is haploid. Fungal evolution ­ fungi evolved from aquatic protists (been around since as long as animals) ­ split with animalia 1bya ­ oldest clear fossils are 460 million years old ­ followed plants onto land, forming mutualistic relationships with them ­ groups: o chytrids o zygomycetes o ascomycetes o basidiomycetes Chytrids ­ most basal fungi ­ cause of the amphibian decline ­ have spores with flagella that can swim: o zoospores Zygomycetes ­ 2  most basal fungi ­ very diverse ­ coenocytic hyphae ­ asexual sporangia ascomycetes ­ sac fungi ­ produce sexual spores in sacs called asci on the fruiting body, the ascocarp ­ morels and truffles basidiomycetes ­ club fungi: mushrooms, shelf fungi, puffballs ­ long lived dikaryotic mycelium ­ environmental triggers stimulate it to produce the basidiocarp with diploid basidia Annelida ­ segmented worms and leeches ­ segmentation ­ closed circulatory system ­ breathe through their skin (must stay moist) ­ protostomes—first hole that 
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