Chapter 4 & 18 – Diabetes
1. Describe the major types of diabetes (type I, type II, Gestational); how theydevelop, how they
differ, and how they are treated.
- Type 1 is less common, no insulin produced bythe body. Usually begins in childhood or
early adulthood. The immune system destroys beta cells of the pancreas so no insulin is
- Type 2 is more common, fat cells resist insulin. Associated with obesity, heredity, and
- Gestational diabetes: pregnant women who have never had diabetes before but have high
blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
2. Identify the dietary strategies to manage type 1 diabetes
- Adjust insulin doses
- Optimal nutrition status
o Control blood glucose with consistent carbohydrate intake at meals/snacks
o Achieve desirable blood lipids
o Control blood pressure
o Prevent and treat complcations
- Physical activities
3. Identify the dietary strategies to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes.
- Type 2 diabetics should engage in regular, long term physical activities.
- Moderate weight loss
Chapter 5 – The Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols
1. Describe the structure of a triglyceride.
- Consists of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule
2. Discuss the functions of triglycerides in the body.
3. Describe the structure of a fatty acid and the effects of chain length, degree of saturation, &
bond configuration on the properties of the fat.
- Chains of carbon and hydrogen. Short chain fatty acids: 2-4 carbons, medium: 6-10
carbons, long: 12 or more carbons.
- Length: affects behavior at various temps
o Food with long chains tend to be solid at room temp
o Foods with short/medium chains tend to be liquid at room temp
Saturated fatty acids
All carbons are bound with hydrogen (single bonds)
Solid at room temp
Higher melting point
More resistant to rancidity (oxidation)
Unsaturated fatty acids
Carbons are bound to each other (double bonds)
Liquid at room temperature
Lower melting point
More likely to become rancid (oxidation) - Shape
o Unsaturated fatty acids form 2 different shapes
CIS: hydrogens on same side of double bond
Trans: hydrogens on opposite side of double bond
4. Describe the structure of a triglyceride.
5. Discuss the functions of triglycerides in the body.
6. Describe the structure of a sterol.
- More complex than phospholipids or triglycerides
o 4 connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen
7. Discuss the functions of sterols in the body.
- Structural component of cell membranes
- Starting material for bile acids, sex hormones, adrenal hormones, and vitamin D
8. What types of food contain cholesterol? Why is cholesterol not an essential nutrient in the
- Found in animal sources of food
- Found in every cell in body, should limit cholesterol intake to <300 mg
9. What is a “phytosterol”? What effect does it have on cholesterol consumption?
- Plant sterols
10. List the essential fatty acids (EFA) for human beings. What are common food sources of
each? How do their roles in the body differ? Which one is in the shortest supply in the
average American diet and why?
- Linoleic acid
- Linolenic acid
11. How do eicosanoids differ from hormones? How does fatty acid intake affect eicosanoids?
12. Describe the digestion of triglycerides in the GI tract: describe the location, the
secretions/enzymes involved (including bile), and the end products at each stage. Describe
how the different end products of digestion are absorbed in to the intestinal cells.
a. How does the digestion & absorption of phospholipids differ?
b. How does the digestion & absorption of sterols differ?
13. What is the role of micelles in the absorption of lipids and how are they formed?
- Products of lipid digestion form micelles
- Absorbed into the intestinal cell
14. Discuss the composition and function of the major circulating lipoproteins.
a. Chylomicron: high density lipoproteins (HDLs)
Largest of the lipoproteins
Transports lipids to the liver from the intestine
Get smaller as triglyceride portion is removed by the liver cells
Chylomicrons facilitate lipid absorption
b. VLDL: very low density lipoproteins