[BIOL 2312] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 32 pages long Study Guide!

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6 Feb 2017
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UT-Dallas
BIOL 2312
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nerve
The four tissue groups:
Defense mechanism, like a bouncer at a club.
Keeps in and keeps out. Never stop working.
Barrier
Apical is top-- faces the environment. Often riddled with
proteins
Basal is bottom-- "talks" to the connective tissue
Structure is important for direction.
Directional:
No spaces, make sense but contrasts hugely with connective.
Tightly bound:
Is also classified by layers and shape.
Epithelial: Most Diverse, the outer functional group, always working
Definitely not about protection, rather more about
absorption or diffusion.
**what does the one layer say about its function?**
Simple: one layer
Notice the change in shape as we get close to the apical region.
Named by apical region.
Towards surface, change shape.
Stratified: two+ layers. (mostly more than 2 but 2 does happen)
Still single layer, but looks like Tetris.
All cells touch basal region.
Pseudostratified: "falsely stratified"
Simple vs stratified vs pseudostratified
Squamous cells- flat
Cuboidal cells- about as wide as tall
Columnar cells- taller than they are wide
Shape classification:
Its thinness warrants diffusion.
Lines lungs and blood capillaries
Simple squamous epithelium:
Lines kidney tubules and several glands
Simple Cuboidal epithelium:
Lecture 1: Tissues
Thursday, January 12, 2017
8:30 AM
lecture notes Page 1
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Tubes in kidneys extract from the blood
In development they began on the outside and then
invaginated themselves.
They are not the conventional epithelial because they are
now on the inside of the body BUT
For glands, they "talk" to the outside environment
Lines kidney tubules and several glands
Line airways of respiratory tract, digestive tract
Can have Goblet cells which secrete mucus to assit in lubrication for
movement
Apical surface decided which nutrients to bring in.
Function= secretion and absorbs
Simple columnar epithelium:
Function= abrasion protection
Keratinized and nonkeratinized.
Skin=epidermis made up of this.
If looks at from above, the cells would appear to be large fat disks.
Stratified squamous epithelium
Very rare to find.
Lines ducts- helps to move things
Stratified cuboidial epithelium
Very rare
Eye (conjunctivitis)
Mainly reproductive regions and the eye
Stratified columnar epithelium
Loose or dense
Connective tissue proper
Cartilage , bone, and blood.
How are these connective tissues?
Composed of cells and have a matrix
The strict definition of "connective tissue" is any tissue that has
an accompanied matrix.. All of the above has such matrices.
Special connective tissue
Divided into two major classes
Protein fiber and ground substance.
Must have protein base
Matrix is extracellular fluid that the cells are suspended in
Fibroblasts produce and secrete extracellular matrix.
Connective Tissues:
lecture notes Page 2
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