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SOC-100 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Social Mobility, Ritualism In The Church Of England, The Affluent Society

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Chapter 8:
Sex: anatomy biology
Gender: social construction tells people what they ought to be based
on their sex
Gender identity: being male or female
o Gender and sex don’t always coincide
Gender (Sex) roles: cultural norms for being male/female
Biological processes: am I female/male because of biology
o OR
Social learning: do I identify as male/female because how I’ve been
treated through my life
o Xy: male xx: female
Intersexual people (hermaphrodites): possessing some combination
of female and male genitalia
Transsexuals: people who feel emotionally linked to one sex, but are
biologically the other
Intersexed: the condition of being born with genitalia or reproductive
anatomy that is difficult to label as male or female, and/or developing
secondary sexual characteristics (boobs, hair, hormones, voices) or
which combine feature of both sexes. The term “hermaphrodite” had
been used in the past to refer to intersex persons, but that term is
now considered by many to be negative and inaccurate
Hermaphroditus: Greek god, body-body fused with a body of a nymph
he fell in love with
Five sexes
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True hermaphrodite: split down the body, one ovaries and one testie
Male pseudo hermaphrodite: typically, xy chromosome, develop
breasts but don’t menstruate, don’t have uterus
Female pseudo hermaphrodite: xx chromosome, ovaries no testes,
develop male characteristics, full size penises
Transsexualism: aren’t intersex, born one way but identity doesn’t
match body, gender identity opposite to biological sex
o Not sure of etiology (where it comes from)
o Options: gender blending (cross-dressing), psychotherapy (not
enough), sex reassignment (need to live as desired gender for
a year before surgery)
o Outcomes: usually happy
Transgendered: appearance and/or behavior does not conform to
traditional gender roles and expectations based on the physical sex
they were born into
o Ftm: female to male
o Mtf: male to female
o Cross dressers
o Drag queens/kings
o Genderqueers
Sex: cultural issue
o Cultural variation: showing affection and sexual position,
notions of modesty, restrictions placed upon openness
o Incest taboo: found in every society, forbidding sexual relations
between relatives (can marry cousins when neither of you can
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Sexual revolution
o 1948 Kinsey: things became more liberal, made people aware
of cheating, explain sexuality not as simple as we thought
o 1960s new openness toward sexuality: birth control legal for
married women, more rights
sexual attitudes in the US: 1970s the sexual counterrevolution
o increase knowledge of STD
o less people engage in premarital sex
o the return to sexual responsibility
o limited partners
o premarital sex and extramarital sex (sex w/individuals who are
not married to each other)
o males are sexually active by 16, females by 17
o age 60: 85% of men and 60% of women say they’ve been
sexually active in the past year
sexual orientation:
o heterosexuality: liking opposite gender
o homosexuality: liking same gender
o bisexuality: liking both genders
o asexuality: does not experience sexual attraction
sexual controversies
o teen pregnancy: U.S. has highest rate compared to other high
income countries, sex education solution or problem
o pornography: sexually explicit material
o prostitutions: social and cultural ties (legal in some places), “call
girls”, “street walkers”, workers in controlled parlors (victimless
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