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BIOL 1345 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Protein Structure, Polysaccharide, Hydroxy Group

Course Code
BIOL 1345
Gretchen Gann
Study Guide

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Biology Exam 1 Study Guide
Science- a method to answer questions, a process of using observations and experiments to draw
evidence based on conclusions; A way of knowing
The Scientific Method
1.) Observe a phenomenon/ ask a question
2.) Hypothesis/ prediction
3.) Experiments
a.) Accurate and Valid
b.) Revised or alternative explanations proposed (alternative hypothesis)
Key Aspects of a Well Designed Experiment
Treatment- any experimental condition applied to individuals
Experimental group- a group of individuals who are exposed to a particular treatment
Control Group- a group of individuals who are treated identically to the experimental group
with one exception; they are not exposed to the treatment
Variables- subj. To change → Independent and Dependent
Sample Size- number of experimental subjects or the number of times an experiment is repeated
- The larger the sample size, the more likely the results will have Statistical
Significance (measure of confidence that the results obtained are “real”, rather than due
to random chance)
Theories v Hypothesis
Theories- hypotheses that have been so strongly supported by empirical observation that the
scientific community views them as very unlikely to be altered by new evidence.
Chief Areas of Focus within Biology
1.) The chemical, cellular and energetic foundations of life
2.) The genetics, evolution and behavior of individuals
3.) The staggering diversity of life and the unity underlying it
4.) Ecology, the environment, and the subtle and important links between organisms and the
world they inhabit.
2 unifying themes-
- Hierarchical organization
- The power of evolution
Evolution- change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation.
Natural Selection-
The Characteristic of Living Organisms
→ Order, Evolutionary adaptation, Response to the environment, Regulation, Energy
processing, Growth and development, and Reproduction.
Atomic Number- the # of protons in its nucleus
Mass Number- the sum of the protons plus neutrons in the nucleus
Atomic Mass- atom’s total mass, can be approximated by the mass # (measured in daltons)
The Four Major Elements
→ Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
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Molecule- consists of 2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds and has a distinct
Covalent Bonds
→ The strongest type of bond
→ Atoms share a pair of valence electrons to become more stable
→ Forms a molecule
- Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur readily form covalent bonds.
Double Bond- the sharing of 2 electrons among two atoms
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds- electrons are shared equally
Polar Covalent Bonds- electrons are shared unequally; results in partial charges on the atoms
** Unequal electron sharing results in polarity**
***Oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur share electrons unequally with hydrogen***
Ionic Bonds
→ electrical attractions between atoms that gain or lose valence electrons completely
→ an attraction between 2 opposite charged ions; forms a compound
Ions- charged atoms or molecules
→ compounds are formed by ionic bonds are called Ionic Compounds or Salts
Hydrogen Bonds
→ Occur when there is unequal electron sharing in two different covalent bonds (OCCUR
- Individual bonds are weak; numerous bonds are collectively strong and critical for
maintaining the shape of many biological molecules
Van der Waals Forces
-weak forces over very short distances
4 Properties of Water
1.) Cohesion of water molecules
2.) Ability to moderate temp
3.) Expansion upon freezing
4.) Versatility as a solvent
H2O Terms
Solution- a liquid that is completely homogenous mixture of substances
Solvent- dissolving agent of a solution
Solute- substance that is dissolved
Aqueous Solution (Jesus Water)- one in which water is the solvent
Hydration Shell- when an ionic compound is dissolved in water, each ion is surrounded by a
sphere of water molecules
Hydrophilic- has affinity for water
Hydrophobic- does not have an affinity for water
Acids and Bases
pH- the amount of H+ in a solution is a measure of its acidity
Acid- any fluid with a pH below 7.0 has more H+ ions (and fewer OH- ions)
- Proton Donor
Bases- any fluid with a pH above 7.0 has fewer H= ions (and more OH- ions)
- Proton Acceptor
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