[GEOL 102] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 20 pages long Study Guide!

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GEOL 102
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Geology 102- Lecture 1 Notes
Science and the Scientific Method
Science- process of describing the material universe by means of
repeatable observations
Repeatable observations
Replicating processes (i.e laboratory experiments)
Re- sampling from the physical universe
COMMON MISCONCEPTION
Subjects that cannot be replicated in a laboratory are sometimes called
‘unscientific’ because they ‘cannot be repeated’
However, ‘repeatability’ refers to the observation not necessarily the
processes involved
Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis- An idea or proposition whose truth or falsehood is not initially
known. A statement of pattern.
Not necessarily an ‘educated guess’
Hypotheses must be falsifiable
Cannot be proven, only corroborated
Non-falsifiable statements are speculation
Theory
A universal explanation for a set of observations and hypotheses.
Generally a statement of process
Hypotheses do not ‘become’ theories
Facts
An observable piece of information
Ideas confirmed to such an extent that dissent is unnecessary
Hypotheses and theories cannot be proven, but they can still be facts
Accepting Theories
Theories become accepted through
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Corroboration- increased amount of information in support of a
theory
Consilience- increased diversities of sources of information
Overturning theories
Paradigm shifts occur when
A simpler explanation is found (parsimony)
Increasing number of observations are found that are inconsistent
with the theory
Two pillars of Science
Scientific Method
Publication and Peer Review
Publication and Peer Review
Scientific findings must be communicated
Peer Review serves as quality control for scientific publications
Author
Submit a manuscript for review
Journal Editor
Makes initial judgement
Selects external reviewers
External reviewers
Comment on the scientific merit of the paper
Journal Editor
Accepts/rejects based on peer review
Author
Revises manuscript based on editor and reviewer comments
Resubmits
Cycle repeats until paper is accepted or abandoned
Differing philosophies on how to guarantee objective reviewing
Open
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