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GEOL 103 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Fuel Cell, Chain Reaction, Sulfur

Course Code
GEOL 103
Gray Dean
Study Guide

of 12
Mass wasting
The rate of motion (slow, moderate, fast)
Slow= 1cm/year
Moderate= 1km/hr
Fast= 5km/hour
The ways to understand and classify is to consider several things: type of
material; type of motion; rate of motion
Types of mass wasting:
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Rock fall (Fast)- Material breaks free fomra vertical wall or very steep
Slides (Fast)- A single, intact mass of rock, soil or unconsolidated
sediment becomes detached and moves rapidly down
Slumps (Slow to Fast)- A downward and outward movement of an
intact mass of unconsolidated material along a curved surface
Flows (Rapid)- A mixture of mostly unconsolidated particles that
moves downslope like a viscous fluid
Materials behave like fluid
o Mudflows (Lahars)
o Earthflows
o Debris Flows- A slurry of Water and particles larger than mud
Creep (Slow)- Extremely slow movement of soil and regolith 1-
o Factors- Heaving of soil: Expansion and contraction
Solifluction (Slow)- Creep that occurs in permafrost
o Melting of soil water occurs form the surface down
o Permafrost prevents downward percolation
o Can “pluck” and move cobble
Complex Movements- Many movement styles occur in single event
o Example: A rock slide can be initiated and move as a mass, yet
later break up during movement to become a debris flow
o Underlying Geology- Dipping beds, fractures, easily weathered
o Water- Adds mass, increases pore pressure, reduces friction
o Weather-Climate
o Slope Modifications
o Deforestation
o Volcanic Eruptions
o Earthquakes
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o Freeze-Thaw
o Precipitation-Water
o Back-to-Back Storms
o Slope Modifications
How does water influence mass wasting? There are numerous ways.
Adds Mass
Less friction/Lubricant
Human Impact
Increasing angle of slopes
Removal of vegetation
Added mass of building on slopes
Addition/removal of water
Know prevention techniques
Enhance or Add Vegetation
o Vegetation removes water; enhances stability of unconsolidated
Develop and Enforce Applicable Building Regulations
o Be conscious of adding too much mass; proper water drainage
o Avoid Construction
Tunnels for avalanche protection
Slope & load reduction
Retention structures
Know Stream discharge Q = V x A, what this means, what units are used
Discharge- The volume of water a stream moves at a given point
Q= Stream Discharge
A= Cross sectional area of stream (ft2)
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