[ED PSYCH 321] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (29 pages long!)

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UW-Madison
ED PSYCH 321
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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What is distinctive about adolescence?
John Hill
o Biological
Height
Changes around 10
o Cognitive transition
o Social transition
Constructed based on society
o Context is also emphasized by Hill
It depends on who's raising them, who do they spend time with
Psychosocial development
Identity
o Increased notion of identity
Autonomy
Intimacy
Sexuality
Achievement
Basic issues in development
Continuous or discontinuous
o Is there a progression or is it stepping stones that people have to reach
o Does development happen gradually or suddenly
Stage theorists believe 1 course for all
Nature vs. Nurture
Nature
o Inborn
o Predestined to go down certain path
o Genetics guide us
Nurture
Twin studies help this debate
Perspectives
Biosocial
Organismic
Learning
Sociological
Historical
Ecological
Stereotypes vs. scientific study
Have an open mind
Biosocial Theories
Darwin
o Theory of evolution
Emphasis: hormonal and physical changes of puberty as driving forces
G. Stanley Hall
o Theory of Recapitulation
A life mirrors the evolution of society
Starts off uncivilized moves to civilized
Storm and stress
Adolescence is inherently stressful
Dual systems theory
o 2 competing brain processes
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Way brain processes rewards, punishments, and social, and emotional info vs.
self-control
Impulsive vs. self-control
Organismic Theories
Considers context more than biosocial
Jean Piaget
o Children as little explorers
o 4 stages of development
Adolescent is period when person is capable of critical thinking and abstract
thought
o Cognitive-development theory
Freud
o Psychosexual theory
Sexual impulses
Oral (birth-1)
Anal (1-3)
Genital (middle childhood-adolescences)
o Case studies not so much scientific research
o Very theoretical
Erik Erikson
o Psychoanalytic Perspective
o Have to go through different mental stages
o Can be stuck in a mental stage
o Psychosocial stages
o Adolescence
Identity v. role confusion
Learning Theories
Stress context in which behavior takes place
Capacity to learn is biological given
Not specific adolescence
Used to understand behavior and then is applied to adolescence
Behaviorism
Directly observable events are appropriate focus of study
Inspired by Pavlov, Watson
o Classical conditioning
Conditioning reflexive responses
Baby Albert
White rabbit
B.F. Skinner
o Operant conditioning
Social learning theory
Bandura
o Modeling actions of an individual
o May start to think like the individual
Imitation and observational learning
Sociological theories
How adolescents as a group come of age in society
Emphasizes factors groups of adolescents have in common
Groups individuals in one cohesive pattern
Historical and Anthropological Theories
Adolescence varies from one period to another
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