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[BIOL 1107K] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (54 pages long)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1107K
Professor
Mott
Study Guide
Final

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Valdosta State University
BIOL 1107K
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Biology
o The scientific study of living things
Cells
o The simplest structural unit of a living organism. In multicellular organisms, many
individual cells serve as the building blocks of tissues and organs
Nucleic Acids
o A polymer made up of nucleotides, specialized for the storage, transmission, and
expression of genetic information. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids
Proteins
o Long-chain polymer of amino acids with twenty different common side chains.
Occurs with its polymer chain extended in fibrous proteins, or coiled into a
compact macromolecule in enzymes and other globular proteins. Large
molecules with complex but stable shapes
Prokaryotes
o Unicellular organisms that do not have nuclei or other membrane-enclosed
organelles. Includes Bacteria and Archaea
Eukaryotes
o Organisms whose cells contain their genetic material inside a nucleus. Includes
all life other than the viruses, archaea, and bacteria
Cellular Specialization
o In multicellular organisms, the division of labor such that different cell types
become responsible for different functions within the organism
Metabolism
o The sum total of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism, or some
subset of that total
Photosynthesis
o Metabolic processes carried out by green plants and some microorganisms by
which visible light is trapped and the energy used to synthesize compounds such
as ATP and glucose
Aerobic Metabolism
o In the presence of oxygen; requiring or using oxygen
Anaerobic Metabolism
o Occurring without the use of molecular oxygen
Genome
o The complete DNA sequence for a particular organism or individual
DNA
o The fundamental hereditary material of all living organisms. In eukaryotes,
stored primarily in the cell nucleus. A nucleic acid using deoxyribose rather than
ribose
Nucleotides
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o Subunits of DNA
Genes
o A unit of heredity. Used here as the unit of genetic function which carries the
information for a polypeptide or RNA
Population
o Any group of organisms coexisting at the same time and in the same place and
capable of interbreeding with one another
Species
o The base unit of taxonomic classification, consisting of an ancestor-descendent
group of populations of evolutionarily closely related, similar organisms. The
ore arroly defied iologial speies osists of idiiduals apale of
interbreeding with each other but not with members of other species
Evolution
o Any gradual change. Most often refers to organic or Darwinian evolution, which
is the genetic and resulting phenotypic change in populations of organisms from
generation to generation
Natural Selection
o The differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various
genetic types belonging to the same population. The mechanism of evolution
proposed by Charles Darwin
Adaptations
o A particular structure, physiological process, or behavior that makes an organism
better able to survive and leads to the development or persistence of such a trait
Phylogenetic Trees
o A graphic representation of the evolutionary history of a particular group of
organisms or their genes
Binomial
o Genus name followed by a species name given to a species
Genus
o A group of related, similar species recognized by taxonomists with a distinct
name used in binomial nomenclature
Tissues
o A group of similar cells organized into a functional unit; usually integrated with
other tissues to form part of an organ
Organs
o A body part, such as the heart, liver, brain, root, or leaf. Organs are composed of
different tissues integrated to perform a distinct function. Organs, in turn, are
integrated into organ systems
Organ Systems
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