HIST 104 Notes (Covers all Material for First Exam)

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Department
History
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HIST 104
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Brian Daugherity

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HIST 104 1/17: Reconstructing the Union John Wilkes Booth: (1838–65) the US actor (famous in VA) who shot and killed President Abraham Lincoln on 14 April, 1865 in Ford’s Theater, Washington, DC, while the President was watching a play. Booth had sympathy for the Confederate States (he was a Confederate diehard) and was angry at their defeat by Lincoln’s government. Before assassinating the president, he came together in DC with a bunch of conspirators to plan a series of assassinations, which would revive the Civil War and would give the South another opportunity to maintain its independence. Booth snuck into the Presidential cabinet, drilled a hole, waited for Lincoln’s guards, and shot the president in the head, which killed him six hours later. After shooting the President, he jumped onto the stage and broke his leg (screaming ―Sic Semper Tyrannous‖/―Thus the Tyrants‖) but escaped. He was later found in a barn, ―tell my mother I did it for my country,‖ and was shot upon exiting the barn. Ironically, the opposite happened: after the assassination, Reconstruction got harder for the South. Andrew Johnson: Vice President of Lincoln prior to his assassination, then became the president afterwards. A Southern Unionist, Johnson was the only Southerner who stayed in the states. Johnson’s vision of Reconstruction was very similar to Lincoln’s, and he decided to fulfill Lincoln’s vision after becoming president. He went easy on the South. Johnson pardoned many high-ranking Confederate officials, he allowed the Southern states to send their people to be members of Congress (many Confederate generals and officers). The Radical Republicans were outraged and Congress refused to sit due to the refusal of the newly-elected Confederate representatives; Congress begins to attack the president, demanding more change and more punishment for the South. With the Confederate officials being elected, black codes (1866; an example being that the freedmen had to carry around papers demonstrating they had a job. If they didn’t have a job, they were arrested for vagrancy. Freedmen can’t buy land, can’t have interracial relationships) came to be, which were codes that policed freedmen. Congress became further upset with Johnson after he allowed the black codes to continue, so they clashed repeatedly, particularly in the year 1866. Johnson went to the people and claimed the Radical Republicans were crazy, so he asked the people to elect more democrats to Congress. The people go with the radicals and more Radical Republicans are added to Congress, expressing their outrage with Johnson’s ―dictatorship.‖ After the Reconstruction Act of 1867, Johnson becomes irate. Congress passes a law that says Johnson cannot fire his cabinet members, or the Tenure of Office Act, which Johnson disregards and fires his Secretary of War. Congress will impeach him, making him the first impeached president. He is not removed from office, but becomes a lame duck president. Reconstruction Act of 1867: First thing Congress passes after the election of 1866. Basically says that the South will not be readmitted into the states until they undergo significant changes; the South is divided into military-occupied districts, overseen by Northern generals and military troops. The Southern judicial system is ignored and the law is enforced by the Northern army until the changes that were demanded by Congress were fulfilled. Administered by martial law; this means that the military controls the entire region and enforces the law. Had to adopt a NEW STATE CONSTITUTION (each state had to revise their constitution); each state had to accept the 13 amendment (the one that ended slavery), accept the 14 amendment (granted citizenship to the former slaves/freedmen), and had to provide public education to the freedmen. Each of the Southern states also had to grant the right to vote to all adult males, without regard to race (will later become the 15 amendment, which will grant African American males the right to vote). Redemption: The prevention of dramatic changes Congress was forcing on the South. Redeemers felt that they should regain political structure in the South, wanted to reconstitute their society in the way they preferred. A battle between Redeemers and African- Americans/Northerners/Radical Republicans starts in the 1880s. Over time, Southern whites (Redeemers) used violence and harassment to crack down on black voting and Northerners likely to vote for black representatives, which is the process of Redemption. Many Redeemers were members of the KKK. Compromise of 1877: agreement resolves the disputed election. It is unwritten, a spoken agreement in Congress. The agreement is somewhat beneficial to both sides. In the agreement, Hayes becomes president (R), but agrees to only serve for ONE TERM. Second part of the agreement is that Hayes promises to appoint ONE SOUTHERNER to his cabinet to overcome some of the divisions between the North and South. Hayes promises to provide money to the South to physically rebuild after the war. Hayes also agrees to remove all the remaining military troops from the South. This agreement signifies the OFFICIAL END TO RECONSTRUCTION, and the Southern states regain control of their region, where they reconstitute society in a way that they prefer (the Jim Crow South [1880s-1940s]), although slavery no longer exists. This time period established segregation, disenfranchisement, and racial violence (lynching, harassing) to maintain control. Secede: withdraw (politically) from the Union, becoming independent nations with new political identities (the Confederate States of America); South Carolina is the first of the 11 in the 1860s, VA originally voted against seceded but did after the Battle of Fort Sumter. The political structure is almost identical to the US (own president, own Constitution, own political branches, etc etc). Freedmen: former slaves. Will they be able to vote, will they count as whole people in representation instead of 3/5? Will they be given land (40 acres and a mule)? Do they deserve nothing but freedom? The nation had been divided in the 1860s, physically AND politically; the Reconstruction aimed to repair both problems. Issue that needed to be addressed during Reconstruction: what to do with the former slaves. The Civil War did not deal with slavery; Lincoln would have allowed slaves if it meant avoiding the war, but it didn’t, so things changed (slaves abandoned plantations and went to union camps to offer help, emancipation proclamation in 1862 [preliminary] and Jan 1, 1863. Emancipation amendment that banned slavery in America=the 13 Amendment; wasn’t ratified until the end of the war. After 1865, slavery is done, but no one knew what to do with the former slaves. Robert E. Lee waged war against America in defense of slavery. In 1865, the question was what to do with Lee and the other Confederate generals. Reconstruction lasted 12 years, from 1865 to 1877. About half of the Confederate states will be readmitted in 1868, the other half in 1870. It took 3- 5 years. Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction; the 10% plan—Lincoln felt the Civil War was a tragic mistake. Lincoln did not directly blame the South for the war, he felt it was unavoidable. 10% of the population of the Confederacy had to sign a loyalty oath to the US. Once 10% of those citizens signed a loyalty oath (denouncing the Confederacy), then the process of re-admittance into the US started. Education would have to be provided to the freedmen., but under Lincoln’s plan, the freedmen would not get land, the right to vote, or equality. No one in the South was to blame. Congress had a different view of the Reconstruction progress. Members of Congress were militant Republicans (which Lincoln was), the most of which being called ―Radical Republicans.‖ The Radical Republicans blamed the South for the Civil War; they felt that the Confederate leadership, particularly the plantation owners (the wealthiest), were to blame—they pushed for secession. Contrary to Lincoln’s opinion, Congress believed the South should be punished. The leaders were to be punished and the freedmen were to be protected and have their status changed. Congress passes their own reconstruction plan: The Wade Davis Bill. More substantial changes were required in southern society before the states were allowed back into the US. Instead of having 10% of the population sing the loyalty oath, 50% had to sign it. Lincoln pocket vetoes (if you don’t sign it, it doesn’t become law) Congress’ law, which leads to the president and Congress “playing nice” with each other; they will come to a compromise on Reconstruction. Lincoln’s second Inaugural Address (March 1865) includes some famous words that signal where he was at during the war: ―with malice towards none, we’re going to come together and mend the Union.‖ This never happened, as Lincoln was assassinated briefly after. Congress, in the spring of 1865, passes the freedmen’s bureau. One of the things it did was set- up schools in the South for freedmen, which helped them become literate, and also set up labor contracts for fair work. Johnson vetoes the bureau after it comes up for renewal a year later. Even though Johnson vetoed the bill, Congress overturns it and passes the freedmen’s bureau. Congress demands substantial changes to society before the South is allowed to be readmitted. 1/22: Reconstructing the Union (cont.) and the South in the Late 1800s (Jim Crow Era) Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): In 1890, Louisiana passed a law that required segregation of railroad cars. An African American man, Homer Plessy, decided to challenge this law by having himself arrested and filing a lawsuit arguing that this was illegal and was not ―equal treatment.‖ In 1896, the decision is handed down, and the US Supreme Court decides that segregation is legal and constitutional. However, they say it’s only legal if the facilities are EQUAL; the separate but equal clause. Brown vs. Board of Education overturns Plessy vs. Ferguson in 1954. Disenfranchisement: ―Explicit or implicit revocation of, or failure to grant the right to vote, to a person or group of people.‖ White population of the South tries to prevent a lasting effect of African-American voters; these men called themselves Redeemers. They wanted to create Redemption. Ku Klux Klan: A war veteran’s group; created in 1865-66 for military veterans. Shortly after, the Klan becomes associated with the harassment and intimidating of black voters and carpet baggers (Northerners who moved to the South to vote). Robes supposed to represent ghosts/hide identities. The KKK is a Christian organization; they believed they had the right to mastery due to some parts in the bible. WEB Du Bois: Booker T. Washington’s main opponent; produces and encourages a different approach to race relations—more adamant to racial equality, that blacks be treated equal. READ MORE IN BOOK. Reconstruction summary: political, social, and physical reconstruction; Lincoln’s plan didn’t want required significant changes in the South (10% plan), unlike the Radical Republicans; Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, an actor who identified with the South, Johnson becomes president, also goes easy on the South (pardoning Confederate officials and allows the states to do their own gov’t.); things come to a head at the very end of 1866 with an election that determined the future of ReconstructionJohnson is humiliated after the election, Congress receives a greater number of Radical Republicans, Congress seizes control over Reconstruction. Racism is a national phenomenon. After the Reconstruction Act of 1867, Johnson becomes irate. Congress passes a law that says Johnson cannot fire his cabinet members, or the Tenure of Office Act, which Johnson disregards and fires his Secretary of War. Congress will impeach him. Johnson’s impeachment trial takes place in the Senate, but the trial is not enough to convict/remove Johnson from office; he wins by 1 vote. The impeachment is more of a signal that showed Johnson that Congress is in control over Reconstruction—Johnson becomes a lame duck president. th The 15 amendment is passed in 1869, ratified in 1870. African Americans are able to vote in 1867 due to the Reconstruction Act. ―The right of citizens in the US to vote should not be abridged . . . due to race, color, or previous condition of servitude.‖ How People Felt About Reconstruction  African-Americans were ecstatic over Congressional Reconstruction; they viewed the Reconstruction as a time period of home, excitement, new changes, etc etc. African Americans begin to move all over the South, relocating, trying to get jobs outside of cash crop agriculture. They wanted to rejoin with lost family members. In South Carolina and Mississippi, African Americans made up the majority of the states’ populations. This Reconstruction period lasts 1-2 decades for them.  Southern whites are extraordinarily upset over these changes; they felt that Congress was forcing these changes on them, despite them being unhappy over it. They felt their former slaves were INFERIOR to them; they viewed them as ANIMALISTIC instead of human. Southern whites hated that slaves started acting like actual human beings. KKK begins to resist these changes, movements to prevent the changes Congress was trying to reinforce. First wave of re-admittance begins in 1868, the second in 1870. Northern Distractions and the End of Reconstruction Near the end, there is a growing Southern opposition to Reconstruction (among whites) and a growing movement for Redemption. The Klan is also growing. President Ulysses Grant tries to crack down on the Klan with the Force Bill/Act, but Northern whites are distracted (by conflict of Native Americans in the West; the settlement of the Western half of US; railroads and urbanization; industrialization) and aren’t paying attention to the problems of slaves. Northerners want to bring the troops home from the South since the war had been over for 5-9 years and keeping them there is costly. Racism is GROWING in the US, thanks to SOCIAL DARWINISM (read about in textbook). Northerners are now less inclined to protect the freedmen. Everything comes to a head in 1876 (by then, all Southern states have been readmitted to the country) (Southern whites hate the Republican Party and tend to vote for democrats; blacks vote for republicans [if they weren’t having such trouble voting]). Tilden is Democratic; Hayes is Republican (both get 50% in Electoral votes). Compromise of 1877, see definition above. South in the 1800s As stated above, this time is a time of segregation, disenfranchisement, and racial violence—the Jim Crow era. Jim Crow is a reference to popular, derogatory, blackface performances that occurred before the Civil War (Daddy Rice is a popular figure in the blackface performances, wrote the ―Jumping Jim Crow‖ song). Laws are passed to mimic the pre-war Southern society that Redeemers were supportive of. THREE PILLARS OF JIM CROW SOUTH Segregation: separation of the two races Disenfranchisement: attempts to keep African-Americans from voting, normally by racial violence; ―franchise‖ is the right to vote, so ―disenfranchisement‖ means the removal of the right; becomes LEGAL by the 1890s through poll tests (literacy tests; gets around the 15 th amendment due to it not being based on race or color), poll taxes (paying to vote—this also disenfranchises poor whites too), and the Grandfather Clause (started in 1890; ―if your grandfather could vote, you can vote‖) Racial violence: physical violence (lynching), but also anything meant to discourage behavior/protect white control (firing someone if they continued attempting to vote). Separate facilities were typically NOT equal. Reasons for Crow  Whites showed who was in control  Prevention of racial mixing/interracial relationships—―mongrelization‖  Decline of the white race if interracial relationships were allowed In 1890, Louisiana passed a law that required segregation of railroad cars. An African American man, Homer Plessy, decided to challenge this law by having himself arrested and filing a lawsuit arguing that this was illegal and was not ―equal treatment.‖ In 1896, the decision is handed down, and the US Supreme Court decides that segregation is legal and constitutional. However, they say it’s only legal if the facilities are EQUAL; the separate but equal clause. After 1896, new segregation laws are passed in most states. Segregation becomes pervasive. 1/24, The South in the Late 1800s (wrap-up), and the Settlement of the West in the Late 1800s: Homestead Act: Federal law passed in 1862; Federal government divides the now-owned Western land (160 acres) and offers them to people to settle. If you live on the land and care for it for 5 years, they give you the land for free. Over years, the federal government gives thay 60% of the land. AFRICAN AMERICANS COULD TAKE PART IN IT DUE TO 14 AMENDMENT, as could immigrants The Iron Horse: Railroads; invented in the 1830s, though the railroads don’t boom until the 1850s. A transportation revolution. Gen. George Armstrong Custer: most closely associated with the Lakota Sioux conflict. Custer was a Civil War hero, fighting for the North, and was then stationed in the South during Reconstruction. Later, he was relocated to the West, where he was asked to relocate the Sioux tribe back to the black hills. The Battle of Little Bighorn, Montana was ―Custer’s Last Stand,‖ where he and his troops failed miserably and were killed by Chief Sitting Bull’s tribe—a victory for the Indian tribes. Lakota Sioux: gold was discovered in the black hills where they resided, so white settlers came and occupied the outskirts of their reservation. The Lakota claimed that the federal government were not abiding by the treaty terms and weren’t helping them protect their reservations, so they abandoned it and reverted to their previous traditions. In the 1870s, troops were sent to place the Lakota Sioux back on the reservation. VA state constitution formalizes disenfranchisement after the KKK comes in. This new state constitution goes into effect in 1902; disenfranchises by literacy tests and poll taxes—if you were related to a Confederate member, you were not required to take these tests. Only 10% of black voters were still able to vote after these tests. Black politicians die out (until the late 1960s) due to these methods of disenfranchisement. Because of this, white politicians lose interest in the black vote, and people suffer due to this (schools given less money, people are forgotten about). The jury becomes all white due to African Americans not being on the registration list. Racial Violence in the Jim Crow Era Segregation and disenfranchisement should not be challenged; the African Americans who challenged it became affected by retribution. 1. Lynching. Carried out by many organiz
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