HIST 104 Notes (Covers all Material for Second Exam)

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Virginia Commonwealth University
HIST 104
Brian Daugherity

BEGINNING OF SECOND TEST MATERIAL 2/26/13 World War I Lusitania “No man’s land” Treaty of Versailles WWI was known as “The Great War,” known as such due to it being the deadliest and largest (men mobilized) war in history, not to mention the consequences were gigantic. 70 million men were mobilized, with 9 million of them losing their lives. Civilians, millions of which, were also killed in action. The U.S.’s involvement helps shape the country. Causes Long Term -military alliances (“Two Armed Camps”—book about alliances, foreshadowing two large groups of nations clashing); the two armed camps were the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire/Turkey) and the Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, Russia) -balance of power upset in 1800s (rise of German nation) -the idea of militarism—military power is the best way of resolving disputes; based on masculine honor that force makes right -industrialization . . . modern armies/new weapons like submarines, gas weapons, tanks, barbed wire (made the conflict as deadly as it was) -new imperialism—colonizationcompetition for colonies (many European nations were seeking the same colonies/land)built up animosity Short Term -summer of 1914, the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, the archduke (“prince”) of Austria, Hungary, by a Serbian nationalist in Bosnia; assassinated because Serbia was upset that the Austrain-Hungarian empire was taking land from themthe spark that set off the war WWI in Europe Russia was the least prepared for war due to political tensions/lack of modernization. Rise of communism, which will inspire fear in non-communist countries. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk—signed in 1918 2/28/13 End of WWI German shifts its troop from the Eastern front to the Western front, which greatly angers Russia. Germany launces a surprise attack on France; both sides build elaborate trench systems: French trenches to the West, German trenches to the East. In between the two trenches is no man’s land. Trenches built to avoid bullet fire; underground (slept underground too). “Up-and-over” methods . . . get up, go over no man’s land, get to other trenches. Leaving the trenches exposed soldiers to new weapons, like machine guns and barbed wires. Trench warfare leaves the war to a stalemate; fighting never goes past a couple miles. Two new weapons: machine/prototype gattling guns, gasses/gas maskslandscape devastated by this weaponry; horse-and-wagon transportationautomobiles/jeeps/trucks First 3 months of battle left more than 500,000 dead (both sides). When war starts, the U.S.’s initial reaction is to remain neutral. We wouldn’t join either side, we also had no preferences in trading countries. We could trade, with both sides but not weapon material. Remain neutral to benefit from trade, don’t want to irritate the immigrants in the U.S. (U.S. immigrant population very diverse—Irish, German, English, etc). People (especially Progressives in the 1910) thought the war was a waste of money, time, and people. U.S. will benefit in early years of war due to trade (much greater in England and France, which will drag us into the war—neither side wanted the other to have American goodswould intercept U.S. ships to prevent our trade from going to enemies). The interception was easy for England to do due to the size of their navy (the largest). Shippers were reimbursed for the money. U-Boats (undersea boats)1914, Germans are forced to start sinking ships via torpedoes if they expected them to carry any war items. Germans agree to not sink civilian boats with England, though they quickly back away from that decision (British start to use civilian boats to ship war supplies). Germany begins to sink any boats approaching British Isles, called unrestricted warfare. The Lusitania (civilian passenger ship) sunk in 1915, via U-Boat torpedoes. 150 Americans die. After this, Wilson tries to get rid of unrestricted submarine warfare. The Sussex Pledge (1916) was signed by Germans in order to stop thisWilson uses this to campaign for re-election (“he kept us out of war” via Sussex Pledge). President Wilson’s Declaration of War takes place five months after his “kept us out of war” platform. One reason being that Germans went back to unrestricted submarine warfare, abandoning the Sussex Pledge in early 1917. Germans calculated that they could win the war more effectively/before the U.S. joined by sinking all the supplies coming into England. The Zimmerman Telegram (1917): sent from Berlin, Germany to the Germans in Mexico; telegram asks Mexico to join Germany in a war against the United States. Intercepted by Britain, decoded by Britain, and then released to the U.S. gov’t. Afterwards, public opinion against Germany goes through the roof, and the U.S. enters war immediately after. The U.S. gov’t manages the warFederal gov’t steps up and takes control over entire war process (example of progressivism). First nationwide draft is adopted (May 1917); called the selective service act. All men between ages of 21-30 had to register. Women not allowed to military”Gee I wish I were a man so I could do it” if you don’t do it, you’re not a man. FIRST TEST CORRECT ANSWERS 2. Knights of Labor 3. Lynching 4. South + West 5. 1869: Transcontinental Railroad 6. Wounded Knee is final battle of Indian War in 1890; takes place in Dakotas 9. 19 Amendment=Woman Suffrage, 18 Amendment=Prohibition, 17 Amendment, 16h th Amendment 3/12, WWI (wrap-up) Great Migration Treaty of Versailles League of Nations Red Scare Who Fought On Our Side 10,000 Native Americans fought for the U.S. in WWI. Many had conflicted feelings on patriotism, but many did want to show it by fighting. African Americans will also fight in large numbers. Production War Industries Board: board that oversaw the increase in production of all sorts of military products; they worked very closely with The National War Labor Board, which oversaw the workers that handled the production. A collaborative relationship between workers, industry, and the government. The Federal gov’t was paying these businesses to produce the weapons and material, so all three benefitted. European factories needed our help with weaponry, so we produced for our allies as well. Homefront Industry made sure items produced were sent to where they needed to go. Railroad industry set up to help this/increase shipment, make it more efficient. Civilians encouraged to cut down on their fuel usage (wood, coal, gasoline). 3/19 Post WWI USA, the 1920s, and the Great Depress
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