A common nickname given to the U.S. regional telephone companies that were formed
from the breakup of AT&T ("Ma Bell") in 1984. Baby Bells were created in accordance with
antitrust legislation, which is designed to create more competition within the industry.
Murrow’s Boys, or The Murrow Boys, were the CBS broadcast journalists most closely
associated with Edward R. Murrow during his years at the network, most notably the years before
and during World War II.
Murrow recruited a number of newsmen and women to CBS during his years as a
correspondent, European news chief and executive. The "Boys" were his closest professional and
personal associates. They also shared Murrow’s preference for incisive, thoughtprovoking
coverage of public affairs, abroad and at home
The original Boys, and some of their notable CBS beats during the war, included:
• William L. Shire , who covered the rise of Nazi Germany for CBS from 1937 until the
end of 1940 and later wrote a successful memoir about the years, Berlin Diary. His 1,245
page history, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, is still in print, based largely upon
captured documents, the diaries of propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and General Franz
Halder. Additional major sources include testimony and evidence from the Nuremberg trials
• Eric Sevarei , who covered the fall of France and the Blitz of London, later covering the
war's progress in Great Britain, Italy, Germany and Asia
• Tom Grandin , a scholar who covered the fall of France before abruptly leaving CBS in
• Larry LeSueur , who covered the Blitz, the German battle against the Soviet Union, and
key World War II fighting in France
• Charles Collingwood , who covered the Blitz and World War II fighting in North Africa
• Howard K. Smith , who covered Germany before Pearl Harbor and later reported from
Switzerland and France
• Winston Burdett , who covered Eastern Europe, North Africa and Italy
• Bill Downs , who covered Russia, France, the Normandy invasion, the Netherlands and
• Mary Marvin Breckinridge , the only woman among the first generation of Boys, who
covered Great Britain, Scandinavia and the Low Countries
• Cecil Brown , who covered Rome, Eastern Europe, Singapore, North Africa
• Richard C. Hottele , who covered Great Britain, France and Germany Joseph Raymond "Joe" McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was
an American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state
of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most
visible public face of a period in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of
widespread Communist subversion. He was noted for making claims that there were large
numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the United States federal
government and elsewhere. Ultimately, his tactics and inability to substantiate his claims led him
to be censured by the United States Senate.
The term McCarthyism, coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy's practices, was soon
applied to similar anticommunist activities. Today the term is used more generally in reference
to demagogic, reckless, and unsubstantiated accusations, as well as public attacks on the
character or patriotism of political opponents.
A Red Scare is the promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism,
used by antileftist proponents. In the United States, the First Red Scare was about worker
(socialist)revolution and political radicalism. The Second Red Scare was focused on national and
foreign communists influencing society, infiltrating the federal government, or both.
Fred W. Friendly (October 30, 1915 – March 3, 1998) was a president of CBS News and
the creator, along with Edward R. Murrow, of the documentary television program See It Now.
He originated the concept of publicaccess television cable TV channels.
Friendly was born Ferdinand Friendly Wachenheimer in New York City. A graduate of
Nichols Business College, Friendly ntered radio broadcasting in 1937
at WEAN inProvidence, Rhode Island. By the 1940s he was an experienced radio producer. It
was in this role that Friendly (who had changed his name during his Providence days) first
worked with Murrow on the Columbia Records historical albums, I Can Hear It Now.
Newton Norman Minow (born January 17, 1926) is an American attorney and former
Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission. His speech referring to television as
a "vast wasteland" is cited even as the speech has passed its 50th anniversary. While still
maintaining a law practice, Minow is currently the Honorary Consul General
of Singapore inChicago. 
Minow has been active in Democratic party politics. He is an influential attorney in private
practice concerning telecommunications law and is active in many nonprofit, civic, and
educational institutions. electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies ofelectromagnetic
radiation. The "electromagnetic spectrum" of an object has a different meaning, and is instead
the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that particular
The Wireless Ship Act was passed by the United States Congress in 1910, requiring all
ships of the United States traveling over twohundred miles off the coast and carrying over fifty
passengers to be equipped with wireless radio equipment with a range of onehundred miles. The
legislation was prompted by a shipping accident in 1909, where a single wireless operator saved
the lives of 1,200 people.
The Act did not alleviate the problem, existing at the time, of interference between
multiple users of the radio spectrum. In fact, by mandating increased use by shipping, it may well
have exacerbated the problem. There was already an ongoing conflict between amateur
radio operators and the U.S . Na and private companies. Amateur radio en