[SOC 4014] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 13 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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SOC 4014
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Has women working brought greater equality? - Sep. 29th
gender inequality in the family?
how do the institutions of work & family overlap & conflict with each other?
Myths
Many women have grown so tired of juggling their jobs & families, they are returning to
domesticity & starting a new homemaker trend
o although newspapers & magazines feature stories about the rush back to
homemaking, there is no decline in women's labor force participation
The division of household labor in US families is nearly equal now, especially in families
where husbands & wives have paid jobs
o working women spend about 1.5 times as much time on housework as their
husbands do
o men = 40% of unpaid labor, women = 60%
o much more equal than it used to be in the past but still not fully
The turn of the century workplace is finally supporting worker’s family responsibilities.
Soon most workers will be able to take advantage of a wide array of family - supportive
programs.
o the family - friendly workplace is more talk than action, w only a small % of the
workforce currently using flexible work programs
o more workplaces w family friendly programs than in the past but NOT
COMMONPLACE or widely used by the workforce
Women, Work, & Family
paid work hours for men & women are converging
convergence in incomes, but still large gender disparity in earnings
central question = whether increase in paid employment for women has resulted in a
more equal distribution of unpaid labor at home.
Is there more equality in terms of decision making in the household?
o Both appear to be occurring to some extent, although men’s paid work is still
given priority over women’s paid work, largely due to income differences
additionally, both men & women face challenges balancing work and family, particularly
a challenge for single parents, especially single mothers
Amount of Hours Worked in Paid Workforce for Men & Women
1975 2010
men’s number of hours of work has stayed relatively even, though in recent years there’s
been a little decline
women’s work has continued to increase
by 2010, men & women’s # of hours worked converged, even though there’s still a
disparity in terms of work hours
Gender differences in paid earnings
median earnings of full time, year round workers by sex, 1960 2009
disparity in terms of pay between sexes much greater in 1960
still over $10,000 difference in men and women
some is due to men and women working diff jobs, & diff amount of hours per week
men and women in the same job still don’t make the same as men, paid much less
Ratio of women’s to men’s earnings
ratio of women’s to men’s median earnings for full time, year round workers from 1960 –
2009
ratio has increased to a certain extent between 1960 & 2009, but still large disparity
Cherlin: women now earn $.81 for every $1 earned by men
Marital Power
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power: the ability to force a person to do something even against their own will
greater power accrues to those who work for wages than to those who produce primarily
for consumption at home
breadwinners should have more marital power than homemakers
amount of monetary compensation (& relative rate of compensation compared to
partner_ also affects martial power
THUS, marital power should be more equal when husbands & wives work for similar
amounts of pay
Exchange Theory
Wives exchange their services in doing household labor for husband’s earnings at work
Since work at home is not as highly valued (or a scare commodity) as work in the labor
force, housewives would be more dependent on breadwinner husbands
As wives’ earnings increase relative to their husband’s, wives should become less
dependent & their household power should increase
likewise, w wive’s increased power. they should be able to get their husband’s to do more
housework, marital power increases
Exception to Exchange Theory
accurate for many cases in explaining relationship between earnings & household labors
BUT in families where women’s earnings substantially exceed their husband’s earnings,
exchange theory is contradicted
^^ seen as emasculating
to counter this emasculation of women’s higher incomes, men may decrease their
housework
in this way, they counterbalance the atypical gender roles to show that they are still
following the gender role expectations for men & women in marriage
Division of Household Labor
1965: married mothers = 32 hours, married fathers = 4.4 hours
1998: married mothers = 19 hours, married fathers = 12 hours
women’s hours decreased, men’s increased
household labor has become more equal
2003-2005, married mothers working full time spent 36 hours on unpaid labor, whereas
married fathers w wives working full time spent 22 hours on unpaid labor
more equal but still division of 40/60, w women doing over 50% of unpaid labor
total amount of household labor has declined, bc women have decreased their hours
more than men have increased theirs
families made up the diffs by purchasing services such as restaurant meals or
housecleaning
Hochschild
Second shift: women work a second shift at home of housework & childcare after they do
their 1st shift at work
counting both work for pay & work at home, women work an ADDITIONAL MONTH A
YEAR than men
Stalled revolution: wives have moved into the labor force but husbands have not adjusted
by taking on additional work at home (housework & childcare)
Women continue to do a much greater of work overall than men do
women’s additional month a year isn’t as quite as large as what Hochschild seems to
indicate because of decrease in unpaid labor and move to more equal between sexes, but
women still work more
Family Myths (Hochschild)
families often create family myths in order to sustain the gendered division of household
labor
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