Psych 350 Exam #3 Short Answers
- Disadvantages of having a pessimistic explanatory style:
o Sees the difficulty in every opportunity.
o Lower grades than optimistic people.
- Covariation Principle & Three types of covariation information people use to understand
the causes of everyday social behavior.
o Covariation- we try to determine what causes “covary” with the observation or
effect we are trying to explain.
o Consensus-what most people would do in a given situation.
o Distinctiveness-what you do in different situations.
o Consistency- given situation on different occasions.
- Actor: tend to see situational causes.
o Ex. Maria’s car breaks down on the freeway. If she believes the breakdown
happened because of her ignorance about cars, she is making an internal
- Observer: Tend to make internal attributions (behavior is due to personal factors such as
traits, abilities or feelings).
- Fundamental Attribution Error: our tendency to explain someone's behavior based on
internal factors, such as personality or disposition, and to underestimate the influence
that external factors, such as situational influences, have on another person's behavior.
o This is because we tend to focus more on the person involved by assuming that a
person is responsible d