PSYCH 105 Final: Psych 350 Exam 5 Study Guide

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Psych 350 Exam 5 Study Guide Emotion: 1. How long do emotions last? a. Seconds or minutes, not hours or days. Facial Expressions of emotions typically last for 1-5 seconds. Many physiological responses that accompany emotion last dozens of seconds or minutes. b. How do they relate to people’s goals? i. Helps us achieve our social goals, in terms of responding to specific challenges and opportunities involving interactions with other people. ii. Gratitude motivates us to reward others for their generosity. iii. Guilt prompts us to make amends when we have harmed someone. iv. Anger impels us to right social wrongs and restore justice. 2. What are the 5 components of emotions and what do each of them mean? a. Appraisal Process- consisting of patterns of construal by which we evaluate events and objects in our environment according to their relation to our current goals. b. Physiological Responses-such as the blush response of embarrassment or Goosebumps that accompany awe, as well as activation of neurotransmitter systems in the brain. c. Expressive Behavior- you show what you are feeling. d. Subjective Feelings-qualities that define what the experience of a particular emotion is like, described with words, metaphors, and narratives. e. Action Tendencies- motivation to behave in certain ways. Anger, for example, can lead to positive behaviors, such as restoring justice. 3. What are the 6 basic emotions? a. Happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, and fear. b. Are they expressed differently across cultures? i. People in certain cultures develop specific ways of expressing a particular emotion, known as emotion accents. Cultures vary in focal emotions, which are common in every day experience. Cultural differences are also seen in which emotions are highly valued, and in the display rules that govern how emotions are expressed. c. Across species? 4. What aspects of emotion do vary across culture? a. India and U.S.: expression of embarrassment were same but different aspects of the way they react were different. b. Cultures also seem to be defined by particular emotions. Tibet is a compassionate culture, Mexico a proud one, and Brazil an affectionate, flirtatious one. 5. What are display rules? a. Culturally specific rules that govern how, when, and to whom people express emotion. 6. How do display rules relate to culture? a. Display rules are a social group’s informal norms about when, where, and how one should express emotions. They can be described as culturally prescribed rules that people learn early on in their lives by interactions and socializations with other people. 7. What predicts happiness? a. How well you think that your life is going (life-satisfaction). b. Emotional well-being: the tendency to experience more positive emotions than negative emotions at any moment in time, or over a given length of time. 8. What is affective forecasting? a. The prediction of one’s affect (emotional state) in the future. 9. What do we tend to get right when forecasting emotions? a. What do we get wrong? Why? i. Overestimate the impact of future events. ii. Get right rationalizing 10. What are immune neglect and focalism and how do they contribute to errors in affective forecasting? a. Immune Neglect: we are often remarkably resilient in responding to painful setbacks, largely because of what Gilbert and Wilson call the “psychological immune system,” which enables us to get beyond stressful experiences and trauma. b. Focalism: we focus too much on the most immediate and searing elements of significant events, such as the initial despair after learning our romantic partner is leaving us, and we neglect to consider how other aspects of our lives also shape our satisfaction. 11. What is duration neglect? a. The length of the pleasurable experience is minimally related to the overall recollection. Ex. Whether a neck massage lasts 20 minutes or an hour, whether a first date lasts 1 hour or 10, seems to have little sway over our recollections of pleasure. What matters most is whether the peak moment and ending are good. Attraction/Relationship: 1. What is physical attractiveness, similarity, and propinquity? a. Propinquity i. The more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends. b. Physical Attractiveness i. Teachers, judges c. Similarity i. One of the largest predictors of attractiveness. ii. Friends and romantic partners tend to be similar in beliefs and other characteristics. d. How do they affect attention? 2. What is the mere exposure affect? a. The more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more we tend to like it. 3. What is functional Distance? a. The influence of an architectural layout to encourage or discourage contact between people-basically how often you would encounter someone. b. Pure physical distance should matter less than functional distance. c. How does it affect attraction? i. The more that you are around someone the more likely that you are to become attracted to them. 4. What are the three central components of the triangular theory of love? a. Passion i. Motivational aspect of love ii. Includes physiological reactions b. Intimacy i. The emotional aspect of love ii. Includes closeness, sharing, and communication. iii. Best predictor of strength of the relationship. c. Commitment i. The cognitive aspect of love ii. Loyalty, devotion 5. What is the main idea behind the attachment styles approach? a. Early attachments with parents and other caregivers shape relationships for a person’s whole life. 6. What are the four attachment styles and the type of caregiver that is associated with them? a. Secure attachment style i. Responsive caregivers b. Anxious-preoccupied style i. Inconsistent or overbearing caregivers c
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