HLT 3400- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 54 pages long!)

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13 Oct 2017
School
Department
Course
WSU
HLT 3400
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Class
Treatment of
MOA
Side Effects
Drugs
Other Info
Muscarinic Agonist;
cholinergic agonist
Urinary retention;
erostoia, sjogre’s
Structurally similar
to ACH; the drug
interacts with
muscarinic
receptors to cause
body responses
similar to PNS
stimulation
PNS effects such as
increased salivation,
abd cramping,
sweating, flushing,
miosis, blurred
vision, N/V; Can
have orthostatic
hypotension with
possible syncope,
bradycardia, reflex
tachycardia,
complete heart
block, and acute
bronchospasm
Bethanechol
(Urecholine) =
urinary retention
and others that end
with chol
Other drugs include
carbachol (Isopto
Carbachol) = miosis
pilocarpine (Isopto-
Carpine) =
glaucoma
They contract bronchial
smooth muscle; should
not take if have GI or GU
obstruction,
contraindicated with
COPD, MI, and with
those with
hyperthyroidism or CVD
Acetylcholinesterase
Inhibitors,
cholinergic agonists
Alzheier’s; glauoa, MG,
nerve gas exposure; used as
a neuromuscular blocker
-These drugs
prevent breakdown
of ACH
Pyridostigmine
works by inhibiting
action of AchE at
cholinergic
receptors and
allows ACH to
accumulate
Will enhance PNS
response so will
have increased
peristalsis,
bronchoconstriction
, bradycardia, and
hypotension
Adverse effects:
twitching of muscles
N/V, miosis, and I
increased salivation
Pyridostigmine: for
MG
Other drugs such as
Aricept, Exelon,
cognex.
donepezil
(Aricept),
riastigmine
(Exelon);
neostigmine
(Prostigmin) for
symptomatic tx of
MG
If taking for MG you can
have a MG crisis leading
to extreme muscle
weakness; be careful it
they have GI disorder or
obstruction, COPD,
Atropine is antidote for
OD
Muscarinic
antagonist;
cholinergic
antagonists; AKA
anticholinergic
Treatment of eye
procedures (dilates eyes),
suppress gastric acid (PUD)
cardiac rhythm disorders
(increases HR), adjunct of
Drugs that block
receptors at
cholinergic synapses
in the PNS and at a
Atropine
(Belladonna)
Antisecretory
agents =
High incidence of side
effects such as tachy and
CNS stimulation
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anesthesia, IBS, dilate
bronchi, antidote for drug
poisoning, urge
incontinence, and
Parkiso’s
few target organs in
the SNS
glycopyrrolate
(Robinul)
Antispasmodic
agents
Bronchodilator
agents
Ophthalmic agents
Scopolamine
Urge incontinence
agents
Nicotinic
antagonists;
neuromuscular
blockers; ganglionic
blockers
Muscle weakness/spams;
adjunct in surgery; helps
with placement of
endotracheal tube;
antidote for nicotinic
poisoning
This drug binds to
cholinergic receptor
sites at
neuromuscular
junctions (nicotinic).
Causes total
relaxation of the
muscles or paralysis
Muscle weakness;
tachycardia;
hypotension;
urinary retention;
muscle soreness
with succinylcholine
Serious: respiratory
depression/apnea,
cardiac
dysrhythmias,
malignant
hyperthermia
Succinylcholine
(Anectine):
neuromuscular
blocker for short
procedures
(depolarizing)
Mecamylamine
(inversine):
ganglionic blocker
Tubocurarine for
longer procedures
this is
nondepolarizing
Effects more PNS than
SNS
Because of toxicity
Mecamylamine is the
only ganglionic blocker
available for use
Depolarization: increased
muscle contraction
followed by relaxation
Malignant Hyperthermia
can happen in sx in which
increased temp in sx
Nonselective
Adrenergic Agonist;
Sympathomimetic
CPR resuscitation; increase
perfusion to arterioles;
anaphylaxis; assist with sx
to cause vasoconstriction to
BV; eye procedures to help
dilate the eyes
Stimulates both
alpha and beta
receptors causing a
fight or flight
response
Nervousness,
tremors,
palpitations,
tachycardia,
dizziness, headache,
stinging at site
(damaging to
tissues)
Serious: HTN,
dysrhythmias,
Epinephrine
(Adrenalin) is
prototype
Neosynephrine
Visine
B-drugs
Isoproterenol
(Isuprel)
Albuterol Tocolytics
Α-agonist: for nasal
congestion and
hypotension, eye exams
(mydriasis)
Α-agonist: HTN
Β-agonist: HF, cardiac
arrest and shock
Β-agonist: preterm labor
and asthma
This drug atiates oth α
& β receptors
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