[Anthro 160] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (20 pages long)

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Anthro 160
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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LECTURE 2
How did anthropology begin?
- Industrialization: rapid social changes prompts new questions about nature of society
- Theory of evolution: from biological to social theories to explain human differences
- Colonialism: need to govern other people as incentive to study them
European global expansion contact with other societies
- Ex. british empire
o Where do differences come from bt colonies/ how best to rule all of them
- How to explain cultural difs bt humans (CULTURAL ANTH)
- How to explain bio origin of humans and other species (BIOLOGICAL ANTHRO)
- How to understand human antiquity based on old artifacts (ARCH ANTHRO)
How to explain human difs?
- Theories
o Degenerationism
We were all once civilized (tower of Babel) but after dispersing some generated
while others remained civilized
o Progressivism
History is characterized by advances from primitive to civilized
Diffusion
- Cultural traits originate in one area and then spread to other areas
- Heliocentric diffusion:
o All cultural traits originate from single source (ancient Egypt outwards)
o ANCIENT EGYPT (pyramids started there goes to other societies, like ancient Maya)
o Ethnocentric bias: people in New world incapable of independent invention?
- Culture circles
o Cultural traits originate at multiple sources
o Connections like webs bt societies
Unilineal Evolution
- All societies follow same evolutionary trajectory (econ, polit, social, religion, rationality, etc)
- Euro societies represent pinnacle of social evolution; all others are on same trajectory (but are
lagging behind)
The Savages
- piitie people = soethig euialet to the ost aiet aestos of iilized people
- Rational vs superstitious
- Restrained vs promiscuous
- Sedentary vs nomadic
Biological evolution
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- Lamarck (missed slide)
- Darwin: natural selection
o Some variations more beneficial for survival and reproduction than others
Social evolution
- Herbert spencer
o Evolution from simple to more complex states. Human societies analogous to biological
ogaiss. Goal is to idetif futios of ogas i aitaining society
- Lewis Henry Morgan
o Focus on evolution of social + polit institutions
o Based some of his theories on data he personally gathered
o Native populations in aurora, NY
- Edward Burnett Taylor
o Focus on evolution of religious thought and systems
o Built theories based on reports and descriptions by missionaries, merchants, and
colonial administrators
The comparative method
- Assump 1: psychic unity of mankaind- humans everywhere think alike
- Ass 2: all societies undergo parallel evolution (prim civ)
The comparative method:
1. place all socieites from prim to civ
2. aalze liig fossils pis as eeplas of pe eolutioa stages
3. compare institutions to understand evolutionary trajectory
Edwards theory of religion
- Unilineal evolution: as society evolves huas eoe oe atioal
- Animism polytheism monotheism atheism
Moga’s uilieal eolutio shee A atual ad eessa poess
- Promiscuity (savagery) polygamy (barbarism) monogamy (civilized)
Social Darwinism
- Some societies are more fit than others
- Justification for European powers to dominate other societies (moral imperative)
o Rationalized colonial domination (we can help the savages)
Racial theories
- Racial groups classified from primitive to civ
- Some races deemed inferior to others iologial deteiis
- Methodology: Anthropometrics-- comparing measurable attributes between races to determine
superiority (against Africans)
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