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Psychology (22)
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Social Psychology 2 Pluralistic ignorance. Error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do. Diffusion of responsibility. Reduction in feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others. Social loafing. Phenomenon where individuals become less productive in groups. Altruism. Helping others for unselfish reasons. Enlightenment effect. Learning about psychological research can change real-world behaviour for the better. Aggression. Behaviour intended to harm others. Relational aggression. Form of indirect aggression involving spreading rumours, gossiping and non-verbal putdowns for the purpose of social manipulation. Attitude. Belief that includes an emotional component. Self-monitoring. Personality trait that assesses the extent to which people’s behaviour reflects their true feelings and attitudes. Cognitive dissonance. Unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting to two conflicting thoughts/beliefs. Impression management We don’t really change our attitudes, but report we theory. have so our behaviours appear consistent with our attitudes. Foot-in-the-door Making a small request before making a bigger one. technique. Door-in-the-face Making an unreasonably large request before technique. making the small one you’re hoping to get granted. Low-ball technique. Seller starts by quoting a low price then mentions all the add-on costs once the customer has agreed to purchase the product. Prejudice. Drawing negative conclusions about a person, group or situation prior to evaluating the evidence. Stereotype. A belief about the characteristics of members of a group that is applied generally to most members of the group. Ultimate attribution error. Assumption that behaviour among individual members of a group are due to their individual dispositions. Adaptive conservatism. Evolutionary principle that creates a predisposition towards distrusting anyone/anything unfamiliar or different. In-group bias. Tendency to favour individuals within our group over those from outside. Out-group homogeneity. Tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar. Discrimination. Negative behaviour towards members of out- groups. Scapegoat hypothesis. Claim that prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes. Just-world hypothesis. Claim that our attributions and behaviours are shaped by a deep-seated assumption that the world is fair and all things happen for a reason. Explicit prejudice. Unfounded negative belief of which we are aware regarding the characteristics of an out-group. Implicit prejudice. Unfounded negative belief of which we are unaware regarding the characteristics of an out-group. Self-perception theory. We acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviours. Instrumental aggression. Hostile aggression. Bystander non-intervention - People more likely to help when alone. - Why we don’t help: o Pluralistic ignorance (it must just be me):  The error of assuming that no one in the group perceives things as we do.  E.g. you see someone lying on the floor but notice no one else thinks it’s an emergency so you don’t intervene. o Diffusion of responsibility (passing the buck):  Presence of others make each person feel less responsible for the outcome.  E.g. somebody dies of a heart attack and you reassure yourself that it wasn’t your fault and that other people could have intervened. - Social loafing: o People slack off in groups. o Influenced by cultural differences – individualistic versus collectivist cultures. Prosocial behaviour and altruism - Altruism: o Helping selflessly. - Situational influences: o People are more likely to help in some situations than others. o More likely to help when they can’t escape the situation. o Characteristics of the victim also matter. - Individual and gender differences: o Influence the likelihood of helping. o People who are less concerned about social approval and less traditional are more likely to intervene in emergencies even when others are present. o Extraverted people more likely than introverted people. o People with life saving skills more likely to help also. - Bystander-calculus model: o Stages: physiological arousal, arousal labelled as an emotion, consequences of helping/not helping are evaluated. o In the last stage potential helpers:  Evaluate the consequences of helping/not helping.  Choose the action with the lowest costs that reduces their personal distress.  The two main costs are time and effort – the greater the costs, the less likely the bystander will help. o Costs of not helping:  Empathy – feeling of stress.  Personal costs – blame and penance.  When there are a lot of other bystanders, these are less and therefore there are fewer reasons to help. Aggression: Why we hurt others - Situational influences: o Interpersonal provocation:  More likely to strike out aggressively when we’ve been provoked. o Frustration:  More likely to behave aggressively when we are frustrated. o Media influences:  When exposed to media violence through observational learning we are more likely to act aggressively. o Aggressive cues:  External cues associated with violence e.g. guns and knives can serve as discriminative stimuli for aggression, making us more likely to act violently in response to provocation. o Arousal:  When are autonomic nervous systems are hyped up, we may mistakenly attribute this arousal to anger, leading us to act aggressively. o Alcohol and other drugs:  Certain substances can disinhibit our brain’s prefrontal cortex, lowering our inhibitions toward behaving violently. o Temperature:  Warmer temperatures are associated with higher rates of violence. - Individual, gender and cultural differences: o Personality traits:  When confronted with a situation, people differ in their tendencies to behave aggressively.  Certain traits can combine to create a dangerous cocktail of aggression-proneness.  People with high levels of negative emotions, impulsivity, and a lack of closeness to others are especially prone to violence. o Sex differences:
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