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Chapter 1

psy290 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: James Olds, Positive Psychology, Sq3R

7 pages79 viewsFall 2018

general science
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Study Questions
Identify the origins of the word psychology. (Page 3)
Two Greek words: Psyche meaning soul, and Logos meaning referring to the
study of a subject
Ancient Greek philosophers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle considered and
debated issues of relevance to psychology
Summarize Wundt’s accomplishments and contributions to the field of
psychology. (Page 4-5)
Campaigned to make psychology an independent scientific study
Established the first psychology laboratory in 1879 at the university of Leipzig
Established the first psychology journal for research in 1881
Founder of psychology
Considered the consciousness the primary focus of psychology
Compare structuralism and functionalism, and discuss their impact on the
development of psychology. (Page 5-7)
Structuralism: based on the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its
basic elements and investigate how these elements are related
Functionalism: based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or
purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure
Structuralism: examined fundamental components of conscious experience existence
like sensations, feelings, and images
Functionalists: brought interest in mental testing, patterns of development, effective
education practices, and behavioral differences between sexes
Structuralists: brought laboratory research
Functionalism: developed two modern schools of psychology thought: applied
psychology and behaviourism
Describe Watson’s view of psychology with special references to the nature-
nurture issue and animal research. (Page 7-8)
Watson argued for nurture. He believed a master criminal is made, not born
Behaviour is governed by environment
Watson proposed that psychologists abandon the study of consciousness and
focus on behaviours that they could observe directly
Behaviourists view psychology’s mission as an attempt to relate overt
(observable) behaviours (responses)
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Stimulus: response approach contributed to rise in animal research in psychology
(because the researcher can have more control over the subjects)
Why did the Gestalt psychologists take issue with the behaviourists school?
(Page 8)
Gestalt theorists were primarily concerned with perception argued that psychology
should continue to study conscious experience rather than overt behaviour.
Why did Freud’s psychoanalytic theory encounter resistance within psychology?
(Page 9-10)
Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental
disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour
While arguing behaviour is governed by unconscious forces, Freud made a
disconcerting suggestion that people are not masters of their own minds
Emphasis on sex
Psychoanalytic theory conflicted with the spirit of the times in psychology
Many psychologists were becoming uncomfortable with their earlier focus on
unconscious experience and were turning to the less murky subject of
observable behaviour
If conscious was inaccessible in scientific observations, how to study
unconscious experience?
Who was B.F Skinner? Describe Skinner’s viewpoint with regard to private events
and free will. Describe the influence that Skinner had on psychology and more
widely outside of academia. (Page 10-11)
He developed a system based on his own philosophy of radical behaviourism
that represented a departure from earlier forms of behaviourism and neo-
He defined internal, mental events as private events
Working with lab rats and pigeons, Skinner demonstrated that organisms tend to
repeat responses that lead to positive consequences and not to repeat
responses that lead to negative or neutral responses
Based on the belief that all behaviour is fully governed by external stimuli
Free will is an illusion
He believed people are controlled by their environment, not by themselves
Describe humanistic psychology, and briefly discuss its contribution to
psychology. (Page 11-13)
The theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans,
especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
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