City of Dreadful Night Reading.docx

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Department
Architecture Urban
Course
ARCU 4600
Professor
Benjamin Gianni
Semester
Winter

Description
Depression, Violence and the Threat of Insurrection • 1886, The Royal Commission concluded that the problem was a structural weakness in British  industry compared with its major international competitors, especially Germany • Commissioners warned that Britain was not putting an effort to discover new markets for produce  but instead wanted to maintain a hold upon those they already had • 1880s – violent and cataclysmic spirit in the air • gangs parading through the city; citizens of Liverpool began to complain in 1886 that they were  being terrorized by gangs o people attacked by gangs, shops facing robberies, etc • real terror among the middle classes was that the working class would rise in insurrection o this fear was among the government too • Feb 1886 – unemployed workers and socialist intellectuals began meeting  o Large mob of 3000 – 5000 went on the rampage into the streets, breaking windows and  looting o Commissioner forced to resign • New Commissioner, Sir Charles Warren, took the position • October 1887 – large mob invaded Westminster Abbey o Police panicked and called army to control the crowds o Injuries to over 100 people; two deaths • The rioting was a result of overcrowding, unemployment • Some were jailed and charged; i.e. Socialist leader John Burns  o But they became heroes to the people The Booth Survey: The Problem Quantified • Charles Booth, the Liverpool shipowener, came to the East End of London to complete what would  be the first modern social survey • His results as four subgroups: o Class A – 11 000 in East End and 50 000 in all of London making 1.25 of the population  Includes labourers, loafters, street sellers, many young people, etc  These are the Vicorian poor­ made up much of the mob o Class B  as a larger problem – 300 0000 in London and over 11% of population
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