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Chapter 16

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Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415
Claire Samson

ERTH 2415 A Chapter 16 Hazards from Space Space Weather HazardsSolar Activity The sun sends a stream of subatomic particles called the solar wind in all directions gravity is not strong enough to hold the turbulent upper fringes of the Suns atmosphere that are released in space Two mechanisms are responsible for solar wind coronal holes and coronal mass ejections Coronal holes are localized phenomena producing highspeed streams of plasma Coronal mass ejections are starscale events sending out clouds of plasma and are accompanied by bursts of radiation released in the vicinity of sunspotsMagnetic Storms There is an interrelation between magnetism and electricitymagnetic field variations induce electrical currents in a medium these laws describe the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction Solar winds take 25 days to reach EarthEarths response to solar wind electrical currents are produced in ionosphere which may cause rapid geomagnetic field variations If so Earth experiences magnetic storm 2448 hrsduring that time electrical currents called telluric currents are induced at surface and in subsurface of Earth also generated along conductive networks such as telephone lines Effects on Technological systems 1 Failures linked to bombardment by charged particles2 Problems associated with disturbances in the ionosphere 3 Electromagnetic induction effectsThe 1989 HydroQuebec Power BlackoutthMarch 13 1989 Quebec had no electrical power and no explanation Four days earlier had been a powerful coronal mass thejectionone of worst magnetic storms of the 20 century All transmission lines to Montreal became unstable control systems failed and the entire HydroQuebec grid collapsed What we learned it is now common practice to reduce the power on transmission lines when a magnetic storm warning is in effect Impact Scars Impact scars are often called astroblemes or star woundsyou can see impact scars on the surface of the Moon made by collisions with space debris Flood basalts poured onto the Moon and created the d
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