Textbook Notes (362,807)
Canada (158,054)
Sociology (161)
SOCI 1001 (18)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Definitions.pdf

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Carleton University
SOCI 1001
Michael Graydon

Chapter 2 Summary association: exists b/w two variables if the value of one variable changes with the other causality: analysis of cause and effect contingency table: cross-classification of cases by at least two variables that allows you to see how the variables are associated control: removing influence of one+ variables on the association b/w independent and dependent variable control group: group not exposed to independent variable convenience sample: chooses people easiest to reach ethnographic: spends months/years living with a people to learn mannerisms/ language/values/culture, to develop understanding of their behaviour experiment: carefully controlled artificial situation in which researchers isolate hypothesized causes and measure their effects precisely experimental group: group exposed to independent variable exploratory research: attempt to describe/understand a theory about social phenomena without research on the subject dependent variable: presumed effect in cause-effect relationship field research: research based on the observation of people in their natural settings generalizability: research findings apply beyond the specific case examined grounded theory: explanation of phenomenon based on speculation but controlled scrutiny of the subjects hypotheses: testable statements b/w relationship with two variables independent variable: presumed cause in a cause-effect relationship operationalization: procedure, researchers establish criteria for finding variables participant observation: observing face-to-face interactions and participating in their lives over a long period of time; achieving sympathetic understanding of what motivates them to act the way they do population: entire group that researcher wants to generalize probability sample: units have a known and non-zero chance of being selected randomization: assigning individuals to group by chance reliability: if a measure can produce consistent results sample: part of population selected for r
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