PSYC 1215 Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Aversion Therapy, Exposure Therapy, Person-Centered Therapy

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30 Jul 2016
Department
Course
Chapter 16 Psychological Therapy
Each is built on one or more of
psychology’s major theories:
psychodynamic
->bring awareness to
repressed/disowned feelings
humanistic
->aim to boost self-fulfillment by
helping people grow in
self-awareness and
self-acceptance
behavioral
->expect problems to subside as
people gain insight into their
unresolved and unconscious
tensions.
cognitive
->assume that our thinking colors
our feelings
psychoanalysis: (1) Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts
and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts;
(2) Freud’s therapeutic technique used in treating psychological
disorders. Freud believed that the patient’s free associations,
resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapist’s
interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings,
allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
Goals of psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic theory presumes that healthier, less anxious living becomes possible
when people release the energy they had previously devoted to id-ego-superego
conflicts. Freud’s therapy aimed to bring patients’ repressed or disowned feelings
into conscious awareness.
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Techniques of psychoanalytic theory:
->emphasizes the formative power of childhood experiences
and their ability to mold the adult.
EX: Imagine yourself as a patient using free association.
First, you relax, perhaps by lying on a couch. As the psychoanalyst sits out of your
line of vision, you say aloud whatever comes to mind. At one moment, you’re
relating a childhood memory
At another, you’re describing a dream or recent experience. It sounds easy, but
soon you notice how often you edit your thoughts as you speak. You pause for a
second before uttering an embarrassing thought. You omit what seems trivial,
irrelevant, or shameful. Sometimes your mind goes blank or you find yourself
unable to remember important details. You may joke or change the subject to
something less threatening.
To the analyst, these mental blocks indicate resistance.
resistance: in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.
interpretation: in psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances,
and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
transference: in psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions
linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
In psychoanalysis, when patients
experience strong feelings for their
therapist, this is called __________.
Patients are said to demonstrate
anxiety when they put up mental blocks
around sensitive memories—showing
__________. The therapist will attempt
to offer insight into the underlying
anxiety by offering a(n) __________ of
the mental blocks.
transference;
resistance;
interpretation
psychodynamic therapy: therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals
as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-
insight.
In these meetings, patients explore and gain perspective into defended-against
thoughts and feelings.
Therapist: Do you mean, then, that if you could, you would like to?
Patient: Well, I don’t know…. Maybe I can’t say it because I’m not sure it’s true. Maybe I
don’t love her.
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Humanistic Therapy:
insight therapies: a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing
the client’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses.
But humanistic therapists differ from psychoanalytic therapists in many other ways:
Humanistic therapists aim to boost people’s self-fulfillment by helping them
grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance.
Promoting this growth, not curing illness, is the focus of therapy. Thus,those
in therapy became “clients” or just “persons” rather than “patients”(a change
many other therapists have adopted).
The path to growth is taking immediate responsibility for one’s feelings and
actions, rather than uncovering hidden determinants.
Conscious thoughts are more important than the unconscious.
The present and future are more important than the past. The goal is to
explore feelings as they occur, rather than achieve insights into the childhood
origins of the feelings.
client-centered therapy: a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist
uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to
facilitate clients’ growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)
In this nondirective therapy, the therapist listens, without judging or
interpreting, and seeks to refrain from directing the client toward certain insights.
Believing that most people possess the resources for growth, encouraged therapists
to exhibit genuineness, acceptance, and empathy. When therapists drop their
facades and genuinely express their true feelings, when they enable their clients to
feel unconditionally accepted,and when they empathically sense and reflect their
clients’ feelings, the clients may deepen their self-understanding and self-
acceptance
active listening: empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates,
and clarifies. A feature of Rogers’ client-centered therapy.
unconditional positive regard: a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers
believed would help clients to develop self-awareness and self-acceptance.
If you want to listen more actively in your own relationships, three Rogerian hints may help:
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