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CHEM 2OA3 (23)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 General Chemistry Review.docx

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Harald Stover

1Chapter 1 General Chemistry ReviewBernard HoSeptember 11 201112 The Structural Theory of MatterThree individuals suggested that substances are defined by a specific arrangement of atomsEx Structures of ammonium cyanate and ureaoBoth have same molecular formula CHNO but differ from each other in 42way atoms are connectedDiffer in constitutionAre therefore called constitutional isomersoHave different physical properties and different namesAccording to structural theory of matter each element will generally form a predictable number of bondsValence describes number of bonds usually formed by each elementoEx Carbon generally forms four bonds and is therefore said to be tetravalent 13 Electrons Bonds and Lewis StructuresA covalent bond can be defined as the result of two atoms sharing a pair of electronsoEx Formation of bond between two hydrogen atomsEach atom has one electronWhen these electrons are shared to form a bond there is a decrease in energy indicated by negative value of HAs the two atoms approach several forces are taken into accountForce of repulsion between two negatively charged electronsForce of repulsion between two positively charged nucleiForces of attraction between positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons
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