KINESIOL 1Y03 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Abdominopelvic Cavity, Peritoneum, Zona Pellucida

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KIN 1Y03- Terminology and the Body Plan- Chapter 1
Anatomy and Physiology
- Anatomy is the scientific discipline that investigates the body’ structure.
- Can be considered at different levels.
- Developmental anatomy is the study of structural changes that occur between conception and
adulthood.
- Embryology considers changes from conception to the end of the eighth week if development.
- Cytology examines the structural features of cells.
- Histology examines tissues.
- Systemic anatomy studies the body system by system.
- Regional anatomy the body is studied area by area.
- Surface anatomy is the study of the external form of the body.
- Physiology is the scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things.
- Pathology is the medical science dealing with aspects of disease.
- Exercise physiology focuses on changes in function, caused by exercise.
Structural and Functional Organization
- Six levels of organization.
- Chemical level : involves interactions between atoms.
- Cell level : cells are the basic structural and functional units of organisms such as plants and
animals. Molecules can combine to form organelles.
- Tissue level: a tissue is a group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them. The
characteristics of the cells and surrounding materials determine the functions of the tissue. Four
basic types of tissue in the body: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous.
- Organ level: an organ is composed of two or more tissue types that perform one or more
common functions.
- Organ system level: an organ system is a group of organs that have a common function or set of
functions and are viewed as a unit.
- Organism level: an organism is any living thing considered as a whole.
Characteristics of Life
- Living things are highly organized.
- Disruption of this organized state can result in loss of functions, even death.
- Metabolism is all of the chemical reactions taking place in an organism.
- Responsiveness is an organism’s ability to sense changes in its external or internal environment
and adjust to those changes.
- Growth happens when a cells increase in size and number.
- Development includes the changes an organism undergoes through time.
- Differentiation is change in cell structure and function from generalized to specialized and
morphogenesis is change in the shape of tissues, organs, and the entire organism.
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Homeostasis
- Homeostasis is the existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the
body.
- For cells to function properly the volume, temperature and chemical content , variables, must
remain within a constant range in the fluids that surround each cell.
- Negative feedback is when any deviation from the set point is made smaller or is resisted.
- Many negative feedback system have three components ; a receptor, a control center and an
effector.
- Positive feedback is when a deviation from a normal value occurs, the system’s response is to
make the deviation even greater;
Terminology and the Body Plan
- Anatomical position refers to a person standing erect with the face directed forward, the upper
limbs hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.
- Supine is lying face upward.
- Prone is lying face downward.
- Up is replaced by superior.
- Down is replaced by inferior.
- Front is anterior.
- Back is posterior.
- Superior is synonomous with cephalic, meaning toward the head,
- Inferior in synonymous with caudal, meaning toward the tail.
- Ventral means belly.
- Dorsal means back.
- Proximal means nearest.
- Distal means distant.
- Proximal and distal are used to describe linear structures, such as the limbs.
- Medial means toward the midline, lateral means away from the midline.
- Superficial refers to a structure close to the surface of the body, deep is toward the interior of
the body.
Body Parts and Regions
- The upper limb is divided into the arm. Forearm, wrist and hand.
- The arm extends from the shoulder to the elbow, and the forearm extends from the elbow to
the wrist.
- The lower limb is divided into the thigh, leg, ankle and foot.
- The thigh extends from the hip to the knee, leg from the knee to the ankle.
- The central region of the body consists of the head, neck and trunk.
- The trunk can be divided into the thorax, abdomen and pelvis.
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Planes
- A plane divides or sections, the body making it possible to look inside and observe the body’s
structures.
- A sagittal plane runs vertically through the body.
- A median plane is a sagittal plane dividing the body into equal right and left planes.
- A transverse, or horizontal plane runs parallel to the ground, dividing the body into superior and
inferior positions.
- A frontal or coronal plane runs vertically from right to left and divides the body into anterior and
posterior parts.
- Organs are often sectioned to reveal their internal structure.
- A cut through the long axis of the organ is a longitudinal section.
- A cut at right angles to the long axis is a cross or transverse section.
- If a cut is made across the long axis other than at a right angle it is called an oblique section.
Body Cavities
- The trunk contains three cavities that do not open to the outside of the body.
- The thoracic, abdominal and the pelvic.
- The rib cage surrounds the thoracic cavity, and the diaphragm separates it from the abdominal
cavity.
- The thoracic cavity is divided into right and left by a median partition called the mediastinum.
- The mediastinum contains the heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, and other structures such as
blood vessels and nerves.
- Abdominal muscles enclose the abdominal cavity which contains the stomach, intestines, liver,
spleen, pancreas and kidneys.
- Pelvic bones encase the pelvic cavity where the urinary bladder, part of the large intestine and
internal reproductive organs are housed.
- The abdominal and pelvic cavities are not physically separated and are sometimes called the
abdominopelvic cavity.
Serous Membranes
- Serous membranes cover the organs of the trunk cavities and line the trunk cavities.
- Inflated balloon into which a fist has been pushed.
- Fist represents an organ, the inner balloon wall represents the visceral serous membrane and
the outer balloon wall represents the parietal serous membrane.
- The cavity between the membranes is filled with a thin, lubricating film of serous fluid produced
by the membranes.
- The thoracic cavity contains three serous membrane lined cavities: a pericardial cavity and two
pleural cavities.
- The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart.
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