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Canada (158,520)
CRJS 1013 (12)
Chapter 9

CRJS 1013 Chapter 9: Abuse and Neglect of Older Adults: A Discussion Paper

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Criminal Justice
CRJS 1013
Harpreet Aulakh

CRJS 1013 Chapter 9 April 9, 2017 Chapter 9 – Abuse and Neglect of Older Adults: A Discussion Paper Executive Summary - Three major categories o Domestic abuse and neglect, institutional abuse and neglect, and self abuse and neglect - Three major types of abuse o Physical, psychological, and financial - Hypothesis to explain abuse and neglect in institutions: o Lack of comprehensive policies with respect to inform seniors; financial incentives that contribute to poor-quality care are built into the long-term care system, poor enforcement of institutional standards; poorly trained staff and work related stress - Last decade = increased pressure placed on Canadian institutions to establish protocols for detection, intervention and prevention of abuse/neglect o No information is available on how many facilities have incorporated these strategies or on whether they work or not - Four major kinds of programs have been developed to respond to abuse/neglect: o Statutory adult protection service programs o Programs based on the domestic violence model o Advocacy programs for seniors o Integrated model - Statutory adult protection service programs: o Four Canadian provinces and all 50 states in USA have enacted it o Influenced by child welfare models o Legal powers of investigation, intervention and mandatory reporting o Controversial =  Some believe is protects the rights of older adults and attempts to improve their quality of life from protecting them from harm  Others say that the system infantilizes seniors and violates their independence - Programs based on domestic violence models: o Not seen as violating people’s rights or discriminating against age o Multi-pronged approach that includes wide range of health, social and legal resources o Problems with police response and restraining orders, poorly managed shelters, and a shortage of follow-up services o Fails to apply to neglect perspective - Advocacy programs for seniors: o Least restrictive and intrusive interventions should be used o Protecting and furthering the rights of victims CRJS 1013 Chapter 9 April 9, 2017 o Problem because many don’t know their rights and can’t gain attention because of disability or isolation - Integrated model: o Multidisciplinary terms o Enhances quality and quantity of care o Teams spend more time per case than professionals that are acting alone Defining Abuse and Neglect - Proposed definitions: o Domestic Elder Abuse = any of several forms of maltreatment of an older person by someone who has a special relationship with the senior, such as a spouse, siblings, child, friend, caregiver, etc.  Occurs within the community rather than an institution such as a nursing home o Physical Abuse = use of physical force that may result in bodily injury such as physical pain, or impairment  Includes inappropriate use of drugs, physical restraints, and forcing feeding o Sexual Abuse = non-consensual sexual contact of any kind of an older adult o Psychological (or emotional) abuse = infliction of anguish, pain, or distress through verbal or non-verbal acts  Ex. humiliation, harassment, intimidation, treating older person like an infant, isolating them from family, etc. o Material Abuse (financial abuse) = illegal or improper exploitation of an older person’s funds, property or assets o Neglect = intentional or unintentional harmful behaviour on the part of an informal or formal caregiver in whom the older person has placed his/her trust  Refusal/failure to provide an older person with the necessities of life, such as water, food, clothing, shelter, personal hygiene, medicine, comfort, personal safety and other essentials o Self-neglect = behaviour by an older adult that threatens his/her own health and safety  Refuses or fails to provide him/herself with necessities of life  Voluntary decision to engage in acts that threaten his/her safety o Abandonment = desertion of an older person by an individual who has assumed responsibility for providing care for that person or by a person with physical custody of an older adult - Definitional disputes: o Problems CRJS 1013 Chapter 9 April 9, 2017  Issues of what counts as abuse and not, and what legislation covers or not  Who is eligible for service  Ex. police officer follows Criminal Code whereas community worker follows company policy  Differences in provinces  Differences in compare countries and provinces  Difficult to redo survey that was done in 1989 because you would have to define abuse in the same way - 1990s and Beyond o Michael Stones = include seniors and caregivers in the definitional process -> crucial if all Canadians are to identify abuse o Norwegian scholars = science of meaning (semiology) to understand abuse  Abuse of older adults = social act involving a witness with clear understanding and moral evaluation of the event
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