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Chapter 1

BIOL 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Systems Biology, Prokaryote, Eukaryote

Course Code
BIOL 102
Dr. W.A. Snedden

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- Evolution
- Structure/function
- Information flow, exchange, storage
- Energy processing
- Systems
Biology- the scientific study of life
Reductionism- reduces complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to
Emergent properties- properties that emerge due to the arrangement and interactions of
parts as complexity increases
Systems biology- the exploration of a biological system by analyzing the interactions among its
Biosphere -> Ecosystems -> Communities -> Population -> Organism -> Organs and organ
systems -> tissues -> cells -> organelles -> molecules
- Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organisation
- How does its structure relate to its function? How does its function differ from other
types of cells?
- Study of structure/function has inspired technology to develop useful tools/products
- The cell is the basic unit of structure and function
Expression and Transmission of Genetic Information
- Genes- units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring
- DNA ->RNA ->Protein
- RNA can also be catalysts for reactions
- Prokaryotic cell- lacks nucleus and organelles (bacteria and archaea)
- Eukaryotic cell- contains membrane-enclosed organelles (all other forms of life)
- Gene expression- the process by which the information in a gene directs the
manufacture of a cellular product
- Genome- “library” of genetic instructions
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