Chapter 2 Adapting to Audiences.docx

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Business Administration - Accounting & Financial Planning
Business Administration - Accounting & Financial Planning EAC349

Chapter 2 Adapting to Audiences Identifying Your Audience  Initial Audience: first audience to get your message; sometimes tells you to write the message  Gatekeeper: has the power to stop your message; can be inside the org. or outside  Primary Audience: decides whether to accept your recommendations or act according to the message; must reach them to fulfill your purpose in any message  Secondary Audience: Comment on message or implement ideas after approval; also include lawyers  Watchdog Audience: has political/social/econ power; pay attention to transaction between you and primary audience and may base future actions on its evaluation of your message Analyzing Audience  EMPATHY: ability to put yourself in someone else’s shoes; very important Analyzing Individuals  Can analyze audience as individuals if they are the people you work closely with  Use Myers-Briggs Type Indicator o Introvert – memos, email, blog o Extrovert – oral, informal o Sensing-intuitive – present stepwise and get facts right vs. present big picture first o Thinking-feeling – use logic and stress proposal’s fairness vs. meet emotional needs o Perceiving-judging – show you considered all alt and set date for decisions vs. present request quickly  Most persuasive if you play to audience’s strengths Analyzing the Organizational Culture and the Discourse Community  Organization culture: set of values, attitudes and philosophies o Revealed verbally through stories, myths etc. and nonverbally in allocation of space, $ o Constructed by founders of org., participants and innovators  Dominant traits of corporate cultures o Red energy: extroverted, action-oriented, decisive | poor listeners, impatient, impulsive o Blue: thoughtful, organized, detail-oriented | cold, introverted and indecisive o Yellow: sociable, creative, persuasive team players | excitable, unfocused, hasty o Green: caring, patient, consensus builders | plodding, stubborn, process-oriented  Discourse community: group of people with same assumptions about what channels, formats and styles to use for communication, what topics to discuss and how, what is evidence  Community of practice: group of people working together who share a sense of purpose, learn together, develop identities and add value to org.  Questions to ask about org.’s culture: o Org. tall or flat? – levels b/t CEO and lowest worker o How do people get ahead? – How rewards awarded (seniority, education, etc.) o Any diversity or homogeneity? Independence & creativity or team and obey o Important of friendship and sociability o Level of formality of behavior, language and dress o Goals? – money? Cx satisfaction? Contributing to community  Questions to ask about discourse community: o What channels, formats and styles are preferred for communication? o What topics are talked about or not o What kind and how much evidence needed? Marketing & communication pros research geographic, demographic, psychographic, behavioral traits Communication Channels  Email – submit job applications, formal proposals and reports  Scheduled meetings and presentations – more formal  Important messages should use formal channels – can be oral or written Written messages  Present extensive or complex financial data  Minimize undesirable emotions  Present specific details about law, policy etc. Provide record Oral Messages  Use emotion for persuasion  Modify a proposal not acceptable in its original form  Immediate reaction  Ans. Q’s, resolve conflicts, build consensus  Focus the audience’s attention on specific points Both  Adapt the message  Use you-attitude, positive emphasis  Emphasize benefits of idea/product etc.  Use visuals  Overcome objections  Specify what audience should do Adapting message Six questions to answer – consider org. culture, political environment, economy and current events  Audience’s reaction: audience act on message they see as imp. Their +ve prior experience will receive message favourably. If unimp: o In subject line/first para – show message important o Realistic deadline for action o Make action easy o Keep the message short  If has negative e feelings about org. already – avoid offensive phrases, develop logic and +ve emphasis  Amount of Info audience needs: if info new to audience: o Be as clear as possible – define, give examples o Elaborate – link new info to old o Use paras/headings to break it up in small parts o Test draft doc.  Obstacles to overcome: decided minds resistant to change. When they oppose:  Start message with any agreement or common ground you share w/the reader  Clear, courteous and unambiguous  Limit your statement; if you can postpone some parts of message, do it  Show solution as best available currently o If request time consuming, complica
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