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Chapter 6

PSYC 100 Chapter 6: PSYC 100 Chapter 6


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Russell Day
Chapter
6

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PSYC 100 - Textbook - Chapter 6
Introduction
Memory - ability to store & retrieve info over time
Encoding - process of transforming what we perceive, think, feel into enduring memory
Storage - process of maintaining info in memory over time
Retrieval - process of bringing to mind info previously encoded & stored
Encoding: Transforming Perceptions Into Memories
Memories - made by combining info we already have in brains w/ new info that comes in
through senses
Memories - constructed, not recorded
Semantic Encoding
Memories - combination of old & new info
Nature of any particular memory depends as much on old info already in
memories as new info coming in through senses
How we remember something depends on how we think about it at the time
Semantic judgments - thinking about meaning of words
Rhyme judgments - thinking about sound of words
Visual judgments - thinking about appearance of words
Semantic encoding - process of relating new info in meaningful way to knowledge
already stored in memory
Greatly enhances long term retention
Involves increased activity in lower left part of frontal lobe & inner part of left temporal
lobe
Visual Imagery Encoding
Visual imagery encoding - process of storing new info by converting it into mental
pictures
Can substantially improve memory
Incoming info related to knowledge already in memory
When visual imagery used to encode words & other verbal info, 2 diff mental
placeholders are result
Visual & verbal
Activates visual processing regions in occipital lobe
Suggests people enlist visual system when forming memories based on mental
images
Organizational Encoding
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Organizational encoding - process of categorizing info according to relationships among
series of items
Activates upper surface of left frontal lobe
Encoding of Survival-Related Info
Survival encoding - produces high levels of memory
Draws on elements of semantic, visual imagery, organizational encoding
May give it advantage over any one of 3
Encourages participants to engage in extensive planning
Benefits memory & may account for much of benefit of survival encoding
Sensory Storage
Sensory memory - type of storage holding sensory info for a few seconds/less
Iconic memory - fast-decaying store of visual info
Usually decays in 1 second/less
Echoic memory - fast-decaying store of auditory info
Usually decays in 5 seconds
Short-Term Storage & Working Memory
Short-term memory - holds nonsensory info for more than few seconds but less than
minute
Can hold about 7 meaningful items at once
Rehearsal - process of keeping info in short-term memory by mental repetition
Chunking - combining small pieces of info into larger clusters/chunks more easily held in
short-term memory
Working memory - active maintenance of info in short-term storage
Working memory training improved performance on working memory task trained, but no
improvements on other cognitive tasks
Long-Term Storage
Type of storage holding info for hours/days/weeks/years
Has no known capacity limits
Info from LTM can be recalled even if not thought of for years
Role of Hippocampus as Index
Anterograde amnesia - inability to transfer new info from ST store into LT store
Retrograde amnesia - inability to retrieve info acquired before particular date
Usually date of injury/surgery
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