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Adolescent Ch9. Peers, Romantic Relationships, and Lifestyle.pdf

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PSYC 355
Martin Davidson

Ch9. Peers, Romantic Relationships, and Lifestyle February-04-13 7:44 PM I. Exploring PeerRelations and Friendship A. Peer Relations ○ Peer Group Functions  Peers: individualswho are about the same age/maturitylevel  Provideinformation (feedback about their abilities,social comparison, etc.) ○ Peer Contexts  Type of peer (ex. acquaintance, crowd, clique, romantic partner)  Location (ex. mall,school, religioussetting, sporting event)  Influenced by parental management(monitor) ○ IndividualDifference Factors  Personalitytraits -- shy adolescent is more likelyto be neglectedby peers than gregariousadolescent  Negativeemotionality(lowthreshold for negative emotions)  How open P is to peer influence ○ Developmental changes in time spent with peers  Spend more time with peers with increasing age  Sometimes, evenmore than the timespent with parents ○ Are peers necessary for development?  Good peer relationship↔ normal social development  Social isolation ↔ delinquency, depression, academic difficulties, problem drinking ○ Positive& negativepeer relations  Positiveinfluence: observe others' needs/interests, become sensitive,form intimacy skills  Negativeinfluence: rejection/loneliness→ impact on mental health, undermining parental control/values □ ↔ drug use, delinquency, depression ○ Family-peer linkages  Parents tend to have littleauthority over adolescent's choice in peers  Parents influence choice of neighbourhood, churches, school, familyfriends (potential friends), etc.  Predictors for parental managementof peer relationships:parental goals for improving peer relations, parental beliefsabout authority over peer relations, consulting (adol asking parent for help for trouble with friends), guiding (parent talking about pro/con of hanging out with certain people), conflict in regard to peer relations (parent-child fight b/c of it)  Secure attachment maybe asset, but not required ○ Peer pressure  More conformation ↔ low self-esteem,high social anxiety, uncertain about social identity  More common in Americanthan Japanesecultures ○ Peer statuses  Sociometric status: extent that children/adolsare dis/likedby peers Popular children - Nominated as best friends, rarelydisliked - lots of social skills,good listener, controlling negative emotions, self-confident Averagechildren - Averagevotes on positive/negativenominations Neglectedchildren Either nominated as best friends nor disliked Rejected children Not nominated for best friend, often disliked Controversial Nominated as best friends and being disliked children  Aggressiontowards peers ↔ dropping out, delinquency, in later adolescence □ Rejected, aggressiveboys are more impulsive/attention difficulties→ more disruptive □ Rejected/aggressiveboys are more emotionallyreactive → easilyangered, harder to calm down □ Rejected children have few social skillsinmaking friends and maintaining positiverelationship  Rejected children tend to be shy & lacking social skills  Harder to study in high school b/c adol are in contact with so manypeople ○ Social Cognitionand Emotion  Social cognition: thoughts about social matters □ Acquire social knowledge→ how to make& maintainfriends □ Ex. Complimentfriendto enhance friendship □ Social intelligence↔ peer popularity; not academiathough □ Viewthat social cognitive deficit as the cause of peer related difficulties  Better solutions ↔ peer status  Misinterpret benignsigns as hostile  Emotion regulation↔ successful peer relations ○ Strategies for Improving social skills  Conglomerate strategies: combination of techniques, rather than a singleapproach, to improveadolescents' social skills,aka coaching  Demonstrating/modelingappropriate social skills  Ex. Stop, calm down, think before acting → go over problem & state how you feel → set positive goal→ think of lots of solutions → try the best one  Those who undergo program improveabilityto devisecooperative solutions  Critic: rejected adols tend to be rejected for various reasons (aggression,impulsive), doesn't change peer's impressionof P B. Friendship ○ Friends: subset of peers who engagein mutual companionship, support, intimacy ○ Importance of friendships Companionship Familiarpartner, spend timeor do activitiestogether Stimulation Provideimportant information, excitement, amusement Physical support Providedresources & assistance Ego support Expectation of support, encouragement, feedback to self- esteem Social comparison Provideinformation about where P stands compared to others Intimacy/ affection Warm, trusting relationship, self disclosure  Fewer friendships↔ less pro-social behaviour, emotional distress ○ Friendshipin adolescences  Move towards smaller,more intimategroups of friends  Basic social needs (secure attachment, companionship, social acceptance) → fulfillmentdetermines wellbeing  Arguedneed for intimacy → seeking friends, disclosing, dependence for support, etc.  Positive:sociallyskilledfriends, oriented towards academic achievement,  Negative:coercive, conflict ridden, poor quality friendship  Friends' GPA ↔ positiveschool achievement, lessdrug abuse, acting out  Not having close relationshipwith best friend ↔ depressivesymptoms ○ Friendshipin emerging adulthood  Similarto friendships in adolescence  More integrative  Fewer number of friendships  Keeping in contact with high school friends decreases decline of satisfaction/commitment in earlycollegeyears ○ Intimacy and similarity  Intimacy: In friendship, usuallydefined as self-disclosureor sharing of private thoughts □ Important feature of friendship; more common in adolescence than childhood □ Share problem, understand them, listen  Similarity: □ Homophily,tend to associate with similarothers □ Similarinattitudes, educational aspirations, etc. ○ Mixed-agedfriendships  Older friends ↔ delinquent behaviours, earlysexual behaviours  Mixed agesof friends maybuffer againstfeelingsof loneliness(F) and victimization (M) C. Loneliness ○ Chronic loneliness↔ impairedphysical/mental health, academic difficulties, ○ Buffer with support from friends ○ Vs. solitude (which some maylike) ○ Lonelinesscommon during transitions (ex. 1st yr of college,moving to another country, etc.) II. Adolescent Groups A. Groups inchildhood and adolescence ○ Broader array than childhood (ex. Clubs/teams,student council, etc.) (beyond friends/neighbours) ○ More mixed-genderedinteraction B. Cliquesand crowds ○ Cliques: small groups of 2-12 people, of same sex similarin age; forming b/c of similar interest or purelyfrom friendship  Share ideas, social comparison with other cliques ○ Crowds: largergroups, based on reputation; spending lesstime together  Ex. Sporty jocks, drug using druggies  ↔ self-esteem  ↔ self-esteem C. Youth organizations ○ Organization such as career groups, building character (girl scouts), political groups, ethnic groups ○ ↔ participate in community activitiesin adulthood, higher self-esteem,better educated, come from familyof higherSES, greater confidence in their abilityto affect their world, increased responsibilities ○ Opportunity for interacting with peers and adults ○ There is a need for more of these programs (lots of dissatisfaction, esp. among familiesof lower income) III. Gender and Culture A. Gender ○ Group size: M more likelyto have biggergroups & participate in organized games/sports ○ Same-sexgroups: M (more conflict, competition, risk seeking),F (moretal
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