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Chapter 3

Adol Ch3.pdf

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PSYC 355
Martin Davidson

Ch3. Brain Cognition Development February-17-13 2:57 PM I. Brain A. Neurons: nerve cells, basic units of nervous system ○ Cell body, axon (sending info, white matter b/c myelinated- insulated in fat means faster), dendrites (receiving info) ○ Grey matter: dendrite, cell body ○ Synaptogenesis: dramatic increase in connection between neurons  Puning: those that aren't used are replaced/disappearswhilethose that are used becomes stronger ○ Changesin neurotransmitter: more dopamine B. Brain structure, cognition & emotion ○ Corpus callosum: largecollection of axons that connects L/R hemisphere ○ Prefrontal cortex: high levelcognitive functioning; reasoning, decision, self control ○ Amygdala:(limbicsystem) emotion  Matures before prefrontal cortex → can't control these emotions yet ○ Dopamine increasesreward seeking & risk taking → impulsecontrol still developing ○ Not sure ifbrain changes causes maturity or maturitycauses brain change C. Experience and plasticity ○ Lots of plasticityduring adol ○ But does new brain cells generate?  It does in olfactory bulbs and hippocampus ○ Can adol brain recover from injury? → higherlikelihoodof successful recovery at adol II. Cognitivedevelopmentalview A. Piaget'stheory ○ Cognitiveprocesses  Adol activelyconstructs their world (not passivelylearning)  Schema: mental concept/framework for organizing/interpretinginfo □ Assimilation:incorporate new knowledge □ Accommodation: adjust schema to fit incoming info □ Equilibration: cognitiveconflict/disequilibriumcauses shift in understanding world. Resolve conflict by shifting → balance/equilibrium ○ Stages of cognitivedevelopment  Sensorimotor stage: 0-2y/o □ Understand world by coordinating sensory experiences with motor activity  Preoperational: 2-7 y/o □ Symbolicthinking, reflect/represent world in words/images □ Ego centrism  Concrete operational: 7-11 y/o □ Operation: mental action actions (of previouslyphysical ones) □ Intuitivewhere reasoning can be appliedto concrete examples □ Conservation of length, width, number, mass, area, volume, etc. □ Hierarchy/classification(sub/class)  Formal operation: 11+ y/o □ Abstract, idealistic, logical (hypothetic) thinking □ Ex. A>B, B>C then A>C □ Hypothetical deductive reasoning: develophypotheses, pick best path □ Hypothetical deductive reasoning: develophypotheses, pick best path □ Early: new ability→ unconstraint, unlimited;submergereality, world as idealisticmainlyassimilation □ Late: reasoning is checked with experience; accommodation ○ Evaluating Piaget's theory  Contribution: assimilation,accommodation, experiencerequired, cognitive develop/shifts  Critics: □ Some cog ability comes earlierthan Piagetsays (agesattached to stage don't fit → but they're were supposed to be only guidelines)  Neo-piagetian:believePiagettheory is good but needs improvement in info processing, attention, memory,strategies, more precise explanation of cognitive changes □ Ex. Child& adol abilityto process info efficiently↔ brain growth & memory development □ Place importance on influenceof culture (ex. Education) ○ CognitiveChangesin Adulthood  Realistic/pragmaticthinking -- as environment changes to a more realistic one (working)so does thinking  Reflective/relativisticthinking -- move away from the polarities(right/wrong)of adol → diverseopinion/perspectives □ Alsoinfluenced by increase complexity of cultures  Cog/emotion:e-adults easilyswayed by negativeemotions □ Balancing cog/emotion comes with age  5th post-formal stage? □ Reflective/relativistic/contextual:ex. Solution depends on context (home vs. work) □ Provisional:truth as ongoing process → more skeptical □ Realistic:can't alwaysbe abstract thinking □ Recognize influenceof emotion  Take multiple aspect into account, make subjective choices, perceive underlying complexities  Stimulated by cross category friendship  Need more research ○ Wisdom: expert knowledgeabout practical aspects of life→ excellentjudgement  Rare (few people, not even in old age)  Advance in wisdom (window in adol to e.adult)  Factors other than age: certain lifeexperiences, people in one's life  Personalitytraits (openness to experience,creativity, etc.) > cognitive factors (intelligence)  3 scales □ Cognition(not understanding something thoroughly, perceive worldas not complex (only either/or), unaware of ambiguity □ Reflective:examinefrom diff POV, lack self examination □ Affection: positive/caring emotion or lack of  Found no diff between college P & older adults  More diff in affect/reflect than cog among older P w/ collegeeducation  Practical > academic knowledge  Balance self/others' interests/perspectives B. Vygotsky's theory B. Vygotsky's theory ○ Knowledgeas distributed among people ○ Zone of proximal development: task as too difficult to master alone, but possiblewith guidance/ assistance of adults/ skilledpeers ○ Social constructivist approach: emphasize social context & learning via social interaction, sociocultural activity  Need opportunities to learn with teacher/skilledpeers ○ Critic:  No age specific changes specified, changes not well described  Over emphasisof language  Relianceon help → becomes lazy III. Information processing view A. Cognitiveresources ○ Capacity x processing speed ○ Capacity: ex. Adol hold more in their mind simultaneously→ more abstract thinking ○ Faster processing speed → better performance (faster) B. Attention and memory ○ Attention: concentrate/focus mental resources  Selectiveattention: focus on specific aspect, ignore others  Dividedattention: concentrate on >1 activity at the same time  Sustained attention: maintain attention to selected stimuli for prolonged time  Executive attention: involvesaction planning, goals, error detection, compensation, monitor progress, etc. □ Improvement→ school work  Multitask is common, influencedby media(cellphone) ○ Memory: retention of info over time  Short term memory: limitedcapacity, ~30 second □ Increases over adol/e-adult  Working memory: "work bench" □ More active/powerful in modifyinginfo than short memory  Long term memory:permanent memory system □ Depends on learning activity engagedin C. Executive functioning: higherorder, complex, cog processing ○ Cognitivecontrol  Effective control & flexiblethinking in # of areas  More focal activation in p
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